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In the first decades of century III BC, after the wars of the diádocos (the immediate successors of Alexander Magno), they stabilized the three main hellenistic kingdoms: Egypt, Syria and Macedonia. The dynasty that reigned in Egypt was the one of the Tolomeos (or Lágidas), the Seiéucidas controlled Syria, whereas to the Antigónidas, descendants of Antígono I Gonatas, touched Macedonian to them. The endemic existing state military between the kingdoms by the control ofdiverse regions, had the only effect to wear away them until taking them to the submission to the Roman conquest. This one prevailed in Macedonian inyear 168 BC, in Egypt in year 30 BC and en221 BC) and Tolomeo IX (107 years 1 1 6a BC). The Egyptian currency is very rich in types and sumptuousin materials and the aspect of the pieces: under Tolomeo III Evérgetes (221 years 246 to BC) they appear octodracmas and tetradracmas of gold thatthey take the busts, together, of Tolomeo IX Sóter II (rescuing) and of queen Berenice. A peculiar characteristic of the tolemaica currency isfrequent use of two together pictures. Also let us remember the gorgeous obverse of tetradracma of silver coined under Tolomeo IV Filopátor 1(205 years 221 to BC), in that they appear two beautiful elaborated profiles with combed, and the precious series of currencies of the Theói adelfói, the divine brothers, Tolomeo II and Arsinoe II, its sister, who took by wife. Another typical note is the wonderful gallery of picturesfeminine which they demonstrate the power shown by the women and the consideration of which they were object in the same vertex of the dynasty. Alsothe picture of Cleopatra VII, last queen of old Egypt (30 years 69 to BC), appears in currencies coined in Alexandria and Antioch, andin addition in Roman denarios, where it is portrayed with Antonio: given his proverbial beauty, it causes perhaps to a disappointment the image that of herthe engravers have transmitted us. The creators of the pictures of the Egyptian sovereigns, even introducing many innovating aspects, they must respect the local conception of the king-God. For that reason they do not yield too much to that colorista realism and vivaz that however is inthe fascinating pictures of the Seléucidas, broken ties with the theocratic vision of the sovereign. In the currencies of Syria, in effect, the faces are characterized by real characteristics, but, which still is more interesting, they present/displayalso Syria in year 64 AD. Despite this so negative political frame, the hellenistic time was very lucky from the point of vieweconomic: the great territory reunited by Alexander Magno continued being a single market in time of its successors, and the own sovereignshellenistic they to a great extent favored the local productions and the interchanges, allowing a good monetary circulation, stimulated, among other reasons, by the warlike expenses. Cities like Alexandria in Egypt, Antioch in Syria and Pérgamo in Smaller Asia, they turned populated centers of commerce and culture, enriched and embellished by sumptuous and splendid monuments. monetary, abundant and new circulation for the time, nevertheless caused strong desequilibraos between a region and another one, and had sensiblereflections on the population: in this one the social differences were become serious and increased the number of slaves. This explosion offree interchange of merchandize privileged the zone of the Eastern Mediterranean, making fall to Greece in one serious economic crisis that derivedlater in a generalized decay, which returned it fragile and vulnerable when the Romans directed their expansionistic sights towardsEast.

Revive the Greek splendor

The currencies of the successors of Alexander reflect the vitality of the interchanges and the commercial activities of the time, and fromartistic point of view accuses the splendid Greek numismatic tradition. At a first moment, mainly for economic reasons, hellenistic currencies even continue the types of Alexander, reproducing their picture. In a moment, desire and the necessity to affirmown individuality induces the new sovereigns to coin currencies with their image, being created a series of pictures that are counted betweenmore interesting of the antiquity, among other reasons because they correspond to the desire of a realistic and not idealizada vision of the worldsurrounding, that affirms indeed by those years. Egypt, that never had had own currency, inaugurates the minting with the typesof Alexander Magno: the iconography is very similar, although the lion skin is replaced by an elephant head. As of year 305 BC, when Tolomeo proclaims king, it initiates the original minting, in name of the Pharaoh and with its picture, seating therefore the tradition to representin the currencies to the still alive sovereign, and not only after its death. The symbol of the dynasty of the Lágidas was an eagle, that in effectit finds in numerous tetradracmas: in dimensions reduced in the first emissions of Tolomeo I, and occupying all the surface in somelater currencies (like the units of Tolomeo IV (205 years 221 to BC), Tolomeo V (221 years 246 to BC) and Tolomeo IX (years 116 to 107BC). The Egyptian currency is very rich in types and sumptuous in materials and the aspect of the pieces: under Tolomeo III Evérgetes (246 years a221 BC) appears octodracmas and tetradracmas of gold that take the busts, together, of Tolomeo IX Sóter II (rescuing) and of queen Berenice. A peculiar characteristic of the tolemaica currency is the frequent use of two together pictures. Also let us remember the gorgeous obverse oftetradracma of silver coined under Tolomeo IV Filopátor 1 (205 years 221 to BC), in which they appear two beautiful elaborated profiles withhairdos, and the precious series of currencies of the Theói adelfói, the divine brothers, Tolomeo II and Arsinoe II, its sister, who took bywife. Another typical note is the wonderful gallery of feminine pictures that demonstrate to the power shown by the women and the considerationof which they were object in the same vertex of the dynasty. Also the picture of Cleopatra VII, last queen of old Egypt (years 69 to 30BC), appears in currencies coined in Alexandria and Antioch, and in addition in Roman denarios, where it is portrayed with Antonio: given hisproverbial beauty, causes perhaps to a disappointment the image that of her the engravers have transmitted us. The creators of the pictures ofthe Egyptian sovereigns, even introducing many innovating aspects, must respect the local conception of the king-God. For that reason they do not yieldtoo much to that colorista realism and vivaz that however is in the fascinating pictures of the Seiéucidas, broken ties withtheocratic vision of the sovereign.

The realistic picture becomes

In the currencies of Syria, in effect, the faces are characterized by real characteristics, but, which still is more interesting, they present/displayalso certain study, because they psychologically reproduce a defined expression and no longer Olympically congealed in an aseptic mask, orwith the lost glance in the emptiness. If the gorgeous picture of Antíoco is observed 1 Sóter (261 years 281 to BC), we found a sovereignmarked by the preoccupations derived from the heavy responsibilities of its position, with the glance framed in ojeras, and with the wrinklesown of the age and the tension. This kingdom, during long proud and indómito time, before the Roman conquest (and even later, becoming a thorn in the imperial flank by his continuous rebellions), it had like symbol the horse with horns. The election ofhorse is not accidental: one sets out, in effect, to remember Bucéfalo, corcel of Alexander, expression of an intelligent and ambitious power, that it takes to his last consequences the independent spirit. Of Syria the currency happens to Bactriana and from here to India, spreading bythe indogriegos kingdoms, until the later Indian kingdoms. In first half of century II BC, the currency also spreads betweenchildbirths, always according to the model of the types coined by the Seiéucidas. Worthy to be indicated they are the pictures of the kings of Pérgamo, Bitinia and Bactriana. Other interesting currencies are those of Armenia: of them tetradracma of silver is representative in whose obverseit finds by the characteristic adorned cap a beautiful profile of king Great Tigranes (56 years 95 to BC), the more interesting and exotic onerellas and eagles and ended by puntriangulares. In reverso repreenta the Tyche of Antioch, that follows the model of the famous statueof bronze made for 121. a the Olympic Games (293 years 296 to BC) by the broncista, escultor and Greek painter Eutíquides, student of Lisipo. rich iconography is completed with the waves of the Orontes, the local river that flows on the foot of the figure. The currencies of the kings of the Ponto begin with the face of Mitrídates III (185 years 255 to BC), splendid example of the monetal picturehellenistic, and it continues with Farnaces 1, Mitrídates IV opátor, its Laodiké woman and with you tie I saw Great (63 years 121 to BC), the famous one byto have made immune to poisons. This last sovereign managed to form an army of allies against the Romans, terrible enemies, but he was won byPompeyo in year 63 BC Of the currencies of Thrace they comprise tetradracmas coined by Lisímaco (281 years 335 to BC): they take inobverse the profile of Alexander deified Magno, with the horns characteristic of the God Amón, whereas in reverso we found Athenianwith yelmo corintio, seated in a throne that leans in a shield, and taking in the hand a Niké, iconography very similar to the one of Zeus inregal seat of honor, that distinguishes the currencies of Alexander.

Tribute to the Olympic divinities

The other great kingdom in which the empire of Alexander was divided was Macedonian, region of which we remembered, in individual, tetradracmacoined under Demetrio I Poliorcetes (283 years 336 to BC). In the spring of year 307 BC, the Egyptian Tolomeo maintained in its great powerpart of Greece and wished to seize of all the peninsula in damage of Antígono Monoftalmos that, as well, a long time ago it fedintention to recreate the empire of Alexander under its own hegemony. Antígono thought that the moment had arrived from the recovery, and trusted aits Demetrio son the control of a fleet that, in Salamina of Cyprus (year 306 BC), gained an overwhelming victory on its Egyptian enemies, without before not to have besieged, with anger and tenacity, ciudadela of the island (of there the sobrename of Poliorcetes, this it is, the sitiador, ). After this success, Antígono and Demetrio assumed the title of king. In order to celebrate this happy moment for the dynasty ofAntigónidas, coined a currency of extraordinary beauty: in the obverse one is Poseidón, of whole body, tribute of the Macedoniansto the God of the sea, brother of represented Zeus and with the typical tridente. In reverso is the prow of a ship on whicha winged Victory stands out that tolls the tube and takes a flag in the left hand. This Niké is looked much like most famous Victoriaof Samotracia “, guarded in the Louvre of Paris, mutilated of the arms of the head. The specialists look for the bonds between these twofigures, and if, as it seems probable, they were indeed twin, the numismatist would have demonstrated once again to be a disciplineindispensable for the historians. The factions of the last kings of Macedonian, Filipo V (dead in year 179 BC) and its Perseo son(year 212 to 165 BC), they have arrived to us through remarkable monetales pictures: of Filipo we have the image of the young sovereign, with the beautiful oneprofile ornado with one cuts beard, or the one that represents to him like Perseo, the mythical son of Zeus and Dánae, of who tried to descendreal family. From the son of Filipo, call indeed Perseo, has arrived at the posterity a memorable picture that it wants to transmit respectand admiration by a sovereign who, nevertheless, will not be able to avoid the defeat before the Romans in Pidna, in 168 year BCIn Greece, even after constituting itself in Roman province, it continues the emission of currencies of silver by numerous mints. Indeed Athensnew style initiates in this period the minting of the call: tetradracmas which they take in reverso lechuza on an invested amphora, andmonogramas or the names of the magistrates. In this period the hellenistic currencies are flat and wider, to allow the creation pos very complex and to give the possibility ofto include names or extensive legend. In century I BC, the Greek currencies cross a new and more modest phase: the types remember the Roman imperial currencies much, withpicture of sovereign or of member of his family, while in reverso are mainly reasons that send to the local reality, nun. The emissions are mainly of bronze and depend on a special permission sent by the Roman authority. The terms helenismo or hellenistic civilization have been introduced in historiograffa modern to define a period different fromGreek. This last one designates the Greek time of póleis (cities Been) from its origin to the coming of Alexander Magno, as, when expanding and modifying the Greek culture thanks to their conquests and their contacts with East, determine the birth of a new onecivilization, indeed hellenistic call. This term maintains in its root the word Hellás (Greece), but transmits totallycultural idea that this fusion in any case is based on the great experience cmca and hoarded in the Greek peninsula. Catalogued evencentury XIX like phase of decay or, at least, transition, the time that followed the death of AJejandro Magno studies itdeeply historian J. G. Droysen towards half-full of this century. Besides to elaborate the definition of helenismo, this scholarhe revalues the period at issue, recognizing an independent dignity and the merit to him of to have operated a decisive and deep transformationof the old world in the political plane, economic and cultural. The helenismo will be disintegrated as the Roman conquest fagocitandoMacedonian (añ 168 BC), Greece (year 146 BC) and the odental Mediterranean (31 year BC). This last date, the one of the battle ofAccio, indicates the definitive imposition of Rome on the last still independent hellenistic State, Egypt. Synonymous of helenismo it is- alejandrinismo “, of Alajandda of Egypt, the most prestigious center of the hellenistic culture.

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