Napoleon Bonaparte, emperor and great falsifier

Between the factors that concurred to do of Austria one of the most powerful States of century xvili, told his solidísima structure financier. The war of Austrian Succession, the great reforms and the conflicts with the Prusia de Federico the Great one became indebted seriously the reign of Maria Teresa, but one first and remarkable aid to the state finances came from the obligations of Wiener Stadt Bank, central bank of the Empire of the Hapsburg, with seat in Vienna. As of 1759, the State Treasury could count on Bank, that is banknotes of 10 and 20 gulden (florins), followed, in the printed most complete series in 1762, 1771, 1784 and 1796, with values of 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 500 and 1, 000 gulden. Initially, the tickets were welcomed favorably by the population. Soon, the war with France required later emissions, that inflict casualties their consequent of value.

the assigned precedent of

In the first years of century xix, Napoleón struck a robust blow to solidity of the BancoZettel, and with it to the finances of the Hapsburg. In France, during peffodo revolutionary, the assigned ones widely had been falsified by the enemy powers and the faithfuls to the monarchic cause. The enormous mass of adulterated tickets had contributed to the loss of value of the assigned ones. Having assimilated this experience, Napoleón established hard sentences for the faisificadores, considered enemy of the mother country: fifteen years of jail @, with chains, @ and marks with iron the red one with letter F (falsificateur) in the shoulder of the guilty. In 1806, after the victory of Austerlitz on coaligados Russians and Austrians, the emperor of the French began to study the possibility to take to the ruin to its two great rivals, by means of the falsification of its paper money. It had observed that Austria, in spite of the onerous thing of his warlike effort, it managed to maintain one heals financial administration. He was conscious that this exceptional result had to remarkable effectiveness and rectitud of the people in charge of Stadt Bank of Vienna, and the Austrian financiers, who acted in syntony with objectives of government. One was convinced for that reason that attacking the monetary system he meant to strike in the heart of hated enemy. After to have occupied Vienna, Napoleón put to the front of the Stadt Bank to Austrian civil employees, but as governor of the capital named to general Ciarke, Duke of Feltre.

gulden false of Napoleón

Napoleón soon introduced in the bank some spies, who shortly time were able to sonsacar all necessary the technical knowledge for the manufacture of the BancoZettel. All the nights, the false French workers introduced themselves in the factories of the bank, studied the machinery and sent to Paris the necessary instructions for the manufacture of retorts. In the French capital it coordinated the operation Fouché, the astute head of the Napoleonic police, that had organized the seat of the falsifications in a floor of number 25 of rue of Montparnasse. The subject stayed so in secret, that two peculiar episodes took place. First, the prefect of Paris and soon the police commissioner of the district they denounced the strange movements in the floor to the own Fouché, that ordered to all the Maxima reserves. It had to take part even Napoleón in person, and with a restricted-dissemination order prohibited any person to enter the building. To the head of the recorders, Lale Parisian, provided itself to him with a safe-conduct in which the prohibition to all the civil employees of police consisted to carry out investigations on its person. This most capable craftsman of the falsification arranged twenty-four plates to record, of copper, each one of which could print up to 6, 000 perfect banknotes. The tickets @, aged ” next, rubbing them with a broom on a pavement covered with dust. The faisificadores of the companies managed to reproduce a thousand every day. The emission of 1 of January of 1800 completely was falsified, except the value of 50 gulden. Still today the tickets are quite common of Bank of Vienna, and it is difficult to distinguish the false ones. The fact that only the bill of 50 gulden is rare, confirms the enormous amount of Napoleonic falsifications. Although they were available a long time ago, Napoleón waited the opportune moment to introduce false tickets in Austria, moment that it arrived in 1 809, after armistice of Znojmo. The French distributed 400 million false tickets, which represented a blow hardest for the imperial economy. The question of the falsifications even was discussed between Metternich and Napoleón in the agreements stops the marriage of this last with Maria Luisa, daughter of emperor Francisco l. The Austrian chancellor tried the restitution of machinery, but Napoleón refused, although it committed itself not to print more tickets, provided by Austrian part they did not disclose themselves the news on the falsifications.

Falsification of assignatsii

The expert hand of Lale returned to serve the great projects as Napoleón, that was formulating plans for the war with Russia. assignatsii Russian already was falsified in 1807, but when the invasion was a fact, the production started again to rate industrial. In 1812 they were in charge to Lale more than eight hundred plates of copper, and for the impression they were facilitated to him not less than twenty-five presses. The blond falsification of the much more easy era that the one of Austrian tickets: the false ones are today easily reconocibles, because companies reproduce in facsimile, and therefore they are printed with the same red that the rest of ticket. change, as they were printed with pen, to, end of just a short time acquired clear a brown color. Thanks to the cación of roubles, Napoleon obtained remarkable advantages: first of all, podia to hope with foundation to put of knees the Russian economy because, although the governors were to the current of these plans, most of the population, illiterate farmer and, he was not in conditions for recognizing false tickets. In addition, its use facilitated the supplyings of French army, or ue the ertrechos they acquired directly with false tickets in each place. This circumstance, among others, presented/displayed to the French invader like fraterno and honest, which was not in Russia to depredate, but to contribute to the ideals of freedom and equality, separate so many good blondes. The farmers did not enter suspicions when they were paid with tickets just left the presses; rather, they accepted them of very good degree. The operation, nevertheless, prevailed only partially, due to the incomplete diffusion of false tickets and, mainly, to defeat suffered next to the Bereziná. 1814 the Russians entered Paris and tried to locate the place where he operated Lale, that, faithful a Napoleón until the death, had managed to transfer all its equipment to Tours. The false ticket manufacture of other nations caused also episodes of espionage. For these Napoleón operations it trusted only Lale, and with reason: even after the death of emperor, rejected remarkable sums in exchange for the publication of his memories. However, the head of the police, Fouché, although coordinated all the operations from Pa@s, were controlled by not less than two groups of informers: a square spied on it directly, while second it watched so much to Fouché as to the first square, by fear to that he could corrupt it. Officially, Napoleón trusted the order of the operation in Russia to Ciarke, that could adduce the experience acquired with the Viennese antecedent ro also that was a maneuver stops to disorient: while the spies of czar followed Ciarke, in fact the responsible one was fidelísimo general Savary, Duke of Rovigo.