Very the currencies VOTIVAS were bound to the Roman tradition, that demonstrate a very interesting custom: when the consuls chose themselves, in the month of January, one got used to publicly formulating votes (calls auguries or auspices) by the prosperity of Empire and the health of emperor. In the emissions previous to Comfortable (years 180-192), the votivas currencies are characterized by the iconography of emperor in moment for offering sacrifices, single or accompanied of priests. Later, these currencies present/display within a crown the legend that it characterizes. Also numerous votivas medals exist: they used to be of copper and they took place with aims of offering on the part of citizens individuals, or by initiative of the sacerdotal schools like prize of the games celebrated in honor of the divinities.

the legionary currencies

In honor to the legions, more and more important military units for the Roman expansionistic aim, were created the currencies LEGIONARY. First in sending to coin them it was Marco Antonio (dead in year 30 BC), who wanted that in these emissions she appeared eagle. This animal was the symbol of the legions from the times of consul Mario (years 157-86 BC). Under Mario, the military organization she experienced deep changes: the army, until then formed by small landowners and with a defensive paper, was transformed into army of conquest, constituted by volunteers who perceived estipendio and, therefore, was

Cards and cards

It has already been insisted on which the currency extracts its value and its legitimacy thanks to the mark of State that emits it with the guarantee of a weight and of a metallic law, according to the official metrológico system. In the Antiquity, often specimens very seemed by their aspect circulated to the currencies, but without character of officiality and legitimacy. In Rome cards were spread that served, probably, for the countable calculations of State. Others were used for the game prevailed and that represents, not without irony, to personages dedicated to games like morra. Other cards served like entrances for circus or theater spectacles. In these last ones we found, with great characters, a number that goes of 1 to the XVI, surrounded by one it crowns, that some interpret like the corresponding one to the locality destined the spectator, whereas others consider one indication of value (we remember that 16 aces formed a denario). The other face occupied it, generally, the picture of emperor or of one of its relatives: is very evident the difference between the pieces distributed at altoimperial time (Augusto and Claudius) and in the Low one Empire, that covers a period that goes of Julian to Honorio (of century 111 to the V). These bronze cards did not exist in the years that mediate between Claudius and Juliano, and separate hypothesis not of all convincing, is no explanation for that emptiness. Other monetiformes pieces take in a face a grain measurement and in the other an amphora: these cards served to receive a ration of wheat @ Je came. In fact, they are the equivalent one of but the recent bonds of rationing. Between the cards of diverse type that circulated in Rome, we also remember the SPINTRIE. Very compatible in his reverso to cards destined theater entrances, in the obverse they represent eróticas scenes. Probably, with these cards it was paid in the houses of pleasing, then sacrílega had constituted an offense almost to transfer. thresholds of one of those establishments with a currency that took the picture imperial. Often the spíntrie distributed the own emperors to them during the circus games, along with other cards and with missilia, this it is, gifts that threw the public. The circulation of spintríe, that is extremely rare, appears under Tiberio (years 14-37) and it finishes with the reign of Domiciano (years 81-96).

Medallones, turnings and beaten

Throughout the Empire currencies of weight and module superior to the norm were fought, calls MEDALLONES, produced in gold, silver and bronze. One is not, as it could think, medals: these generally are of deprived manufacture, are not destined to the circulation and, therefore, they are not affected by the dispositions in the matter of iconography, weight, module and metallic law. Of the medals that we know, medallones Roman has only one marked celebrativa and commemorative function. In fact currencies to all the effects are considered, inasmuch as its emission was guaranteed by the State, and its weight was always a multiple of numerario official. Rarest under Augusto, medallones is however enough frequent with Trajano, Adriano, the Antoninos and Cómodo (in century 11). They became more sporadic in the following years, although units are until the fall of Empire. The invoice is in general very taken care of: the its greater ones dimensions did not admit a hurried engraving. The beauty and the care contributed these medallones testify their more probable use: ostentation of being able, the transmission of an honor and prestige message that reached to who ordered them and to the adressee. It is likely that currencies were given relief personages, like officials of the legions, signatories of the cut or emissaries of kings Barbarians with whom the Romans put themselves in contact during their conquests. Although they were multiple of the official currency, his use no he affected the changes: in effect, have been many mounted units of medallones in jewels with works of the time. We know in addition that they were hung in the military standards. Often medallones of bronze presents/displays only the picture of emperor in obverse, whereas reverso remains smooth, and takes a different metal mount that it increases his diameter. Surely, even without the rim, was not of small dimensions: of first medallón that is known, coined under Augusto and from a value of 4 golden ones, is arrived at pieces by value of 1 00 golden ones coined under Heliogábalo (years 218 to 222). Of the time of Constantino we have unit of 8 solids, and of the following time, multiple of up to 40 solids of gold and silver. The pieces are rarest in the numismatic market of High Empire, whereas are relatively more numerous the units from Galieno. Along with medallones, deserves to remember the TURNED calls (medallones turned), which, although in some aspects resemble the first (wide module and efigie of emperor in determined exemplary), is different by some característi cas fundamental. First of all, d does not treat currencies, but of authentic medals if legal course. In addition, the style of represents ciones no certainly it is taken care of and refined like the one of medallones. Another own característie of the turnings is great variety d the personages represented: in addition to the emperors they appear Homero, Pitágoras Demóstenes and also Minerva, Hercules Mercury and the infaltable Alexander Magno. And it names turning derives that very they dam taciones of the obverse and of reverso they are delimi tadas by a furrow done to winch, próxim to the edge. However, often they appear efigies of emperors as Nerán and Trajano (centuries 1-11) reason why accept that this medals commonly no they took place until controverted the IVEs centuries, however, its destiny: algu speaks to us of cards for the entrance in the circus but in this case its intrinsic value I will be out of proportion. Many maintain that s deals with laborers of a game that does not know MOS, being based on which many of these turnings only present/display wearing down in reverso, as if they had been made slip repeatedly by something similar to board or a cloth. Others think more that it is amulets or means of pagan propaganda, but to this last hypothesis another one is opposed, not less likely, than it sees in them a Christian meaning. Very uncertain, and closely perhaps related to the use of the contourings, it is the nature of DANGEROUS bronzes. One is bronze pieces of imperial period, which they present/display all the beaten edge to hammer, in order to heighten it. The amount of milkshakes is remarkable, and it makes think that the hammering could obey to a specific use and not to simple vandalism. !>

The Damnatio memoriae

With all the respect towards the modern histocadores that set out to clear the field of common places, they are proverbial the cruelties of Calígula (years 37-41) and Nerán (years 54-68). Obvious, the personality of these emperors is much more complex and rich, and during his reign even knew moments popular favor. Less unquestionable it is not than the tendency to an absolute monarchy, the elimination of numerosísimos relatives and citizens and the cruelty of the pretorianos by which they surrounded themselves, attracted both emperors many detractors and enemies. In the currencies, faithful mirrors of history, are abundant expressions of the sentence that fell on the sovereigns guilty of cruel actions: their pictures appear disfigured and their names, scraped and sometimes mutilated. This it is the case, for example, of Calígula, whose currencies present/display the name of Caius turned, aius, whereas those of Nerón they show deep furrows that disfigure the image. It often happened that damnatio memoriae (the sentence of memory) took to the erasure complete of detested name, as it is observed in some currencies of Tberio (years 14-37), in which the name of Sejano is completely scraped. It is from all comprehensible one, since this prefect of ambitious all, crudelísimo and excessively, after having conquered the confidence of emperor did not doubt, by avidity of being able, in assassinating the only son of Tiberio, Drusean Julio Caesar.


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