The typical currency of the Roman Republic was the denario of silver. P under corresponded originally to 1/72 of Roman pound, this is, 4. 55 g. More ahead, and by virtue of lex Flaminia (217 year BC), one was based on 1/84 of pound, equivalent to 3. 90 g. The emissions included/understood denarios and their fractions: the quinario, equal to average denario; sestercio, this are, denario 1/4 or quinario means, the value appeared in three nouns: the denario characterized by sign X (= 10 I roast; in year 217 BC its value was compared to 16 I roast), the quinario by sign V (= 5 I roast) and sestercio by letters IIS = 2. 5 I roast).

a controverted dating

There is no agreement on the date of the introduction of the denario in the Roman society: the tradition, being based on the news of Libyan Tito (Periochae, XV) and of Pliny the Old one (Naturalis history, 3, 42), fixed the adoption of the denario of silver to 268 year BC (the decision of Senate to institute this new currency would go back to year 269 BC). The Italian school (Cesano, Breglia, Panvini Rosati, Stazio, Uirich Bansa) substantially is convinced of the validity of that date, because it is next to a little while that it marks an episode of great historical and political importance in the Roman world: Rome was moderate for the first time with an international power (war against Pirro, finalized in year 275 BC) and it won. The Magna Greece happened to comprise of its hegemonic sphere, and Rome projected now in The Mediterranean. The commerce demanded a currency that was the clear expression of this new emergent power. In 1932, and date was opposed by two scholars English (H. Mattingiy and E. Robinson), who maintained that the currencies of silver mentioned by teas were the Roman, Campania. 0 is that BC accepts taban the introduction of the nario c to year 187. There are (few years, without embarg an archaeological finding reduced credit a this hypothesis: in Sicily, in the place of the old Morgantina, in the sanctuary dedicated to Deméter and Core, was a container that it contained, among cenarios, quinarios, sestercios and victoriatos others, with an own iconography of the first period of his emission. Like, BC can date destruction from that sanctuary to fi them of century III., during the second Punic war, seems impossible to maintain that denario appeared much later. A commitment current has formed therefore, that proposes an intermediate date: year 217 BC production of the cenario, from the moment of its introduction, was constant, whereas the quinario and sestercio had a production much more irregular and reduced. The denario and the quinario continued both circulating first centuries of the Empire, in as much sestercio, made in bronze and oricalco (alloy of copper and zinc, very similar to the brass), Grande was used until the times of Constantino (first decades of century IV AD.).

humanized Divinities

The types of the denario experienced remarkable variations with time, and is in interesting end the analysis of these changes and of its reasons. It is accepted generally that the first Roman denario was the anonymous denario call: this currency presents/displays in the obverse efigie of Rome returned towards the right, with crestado helmet and, behind the nape of the neck, the sign of the value (x); in reverso they appear the Dioscuros, on whose head there is a star; and in exergo, the ROME inscription. He is interesting to indicate that this style is remote of the solemn Greek beauty, so harmonious and elegant. Let us consider the scene of reverso: the subject of the horse also had been one of the favorites of the Greek currencies, but the difference whereupon both world they treat he himself subject is significant. The horses represented in the authentic denarios are corceles sent galope, and Dioscuros more are resembled men than to divinities. Shortly after the introduction of the anonymous denario, the exigency was experienced of to evoke, by means of a symbol, the figure of the only magistrate del that depended the emission. In this way, the person at issue could be identified clearly at any time, like person in charge of possible abuses committed during its management. These symbols, between that we remembered the anchor, the dog, lechuza, the knife, the lunar flood, the prow, the point of the spear, rarnn of laurel, the pig or shield (altogether we know some thirty), was arranged in reverso of the currency and, as it is possible to imagine, they sent to the three activities fundamental of the Roman citizen: agriculture, the war and the commerce. Not yet being always and closely bound to the figure of monetary magistrate, the symbols allowed the identification in any case. This simbología, perhaps ‘for being too complicated, it did not take in give iing (final of century III BC) to open the way to an innovation figurative: the iconography of the Dioscuros was replaced by the representation of Morning call (or the Victory) on a beam. Also in this case the mentality Roman, very practical, moved away of esthetic idealizaciones and ready is demonstrated to see in the divinity a human figure and no pure spirit and beauty, Another innovating characteristic constituted the introduction of epigraphic elements like the initial letters of name of the monetary one. In this point, the State reached its intention to put record unequivocal of the name of the civil employees people in charge, and it would allow to think that the formal process was concluded in this point. Nevertheless, an interesting fact took place and peculiar, although comprehensible in a society that always privileged the group in front of the individual: once experienced the great one favor and the privilege that represented for monetary and the its family the explicit declaration of its position, the person discovered i value of his own individuality and tried to raise it still more. Thus, in the obverse, behind the head of Rome says to it, began to appear complete names (Atiiius Saranus, Sempronius Whistle, Marcus Libo, to remember only some of the first appeared names). innovations, by the others, made reference to the origins of the family and also bore relation to the iconography from reverso: thus, so repeated type of the beam he returns with Jupiter like auriga (Papirius Carbo), with Hercules guiding centaurs (Aureiius Level) or with Juno in a caleche thrown by male joists (Caius Renius that, original of Lanuvio, send to the cult of Juno Caprotina, the goddess venerated in that city). In a while dice, even modified the iconography of the obverse: Cneo Gelio proposed in year 125 BC a new head of Rome, crowned of laurel, and Terencio Lucano inaugurated a small head crowned by the Victory. Few years later (principle of century I was developed a process of personal celeción: the onetarios magistrates sought to present his own merits and counted contemporary episodes, with which they constructed an historical gallery of great interest. Naturally, narrative complexity and the plurality of the personages suggests often very schematic compositivas selections, and sometimes they are emasiado, full, for the diameter a currency, but the result is fascinating almost always and of greater intes. The State did not take part before these continuous variations; the important thing was that the law of the metal and the weight were respected. In the denarios we found of everything: personages of the mitológico tradition (Numa Pompilio, Tarpeya), of the Roman political life (Escipión African) and historical personages of other countries with which the Romans had entered historical contact, events, monuments and scenes of the current life, like duels or sacrifices. With Caesar, the Senate authorized a great innovation: in the currencies it appears the picture of an alive personage. Between the silver currencies, it was also the victoriato, of 3. 41 g of weight. Destined to the interchanges with countries foreigners, this currency presents/displays in the obverse the honored Jupiter head, and in reverso, the Victory still on, crowning a triumph. minting of the victoriato did not last much.


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