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With the conquest of the power by Julio Caesar, Rome directed itself to an institutional form of monarchic type: the Republic remained intact in appearance, but the power was concentrated more and more in single hands, When in year 44 to, C. Caesar was proclaimed perpetual dictator, as well as life emperor, became the anomaly evident respect to the republican institutions. The death of the great politician, happened shortly after, it spoiled his plans of government and it unleashed a furious civil war that concluded in 31 year BC with the battle of Accio, episode that stops many historians indicates the beginning of the imperial period or, in any case, of the definitive one to decline of the republic. In the application of its foresighted and intelligent policy, Octavio, that overcame in Accio to the faction of its Marco antagonist Antonio, was very kind not to give by concluded the republican period. Rather, all its propagandistic program was centered in the exaltación of values and the ideals of the past. And gradually prudent, the whole political ordering experienced directed mutations a to justify the position of Octavio legally, which was reuniting in a single person and without limits of time, all the positions that during the Republic been rigorously they had distributed between several magistrates. Octavio preferred to act gradually: first it assumed the title of princeps, soon the one of augustus, and finally the one of imperator. Also they attributed the tribunicio power to him, positions of cónsui, and procónsui, and the dignity of pontifex maximus, which allowed to reunite in its person the decisive and unique control him of all the organs of being able. The reconstruction of Octavio Augusto (also called simply

the art like consensus instrument

In order to guarantee stability to his power, Augusto dedicated many of his energies and their intelligence to the organization of the consensus: the art and Literature became for him instruments refined and precious for the propagation of the values of the principality, which they insisted on the ideal of continuity with respect to the old Roman civilization. The devotion to the Gods, the cult of the ancestors and the exaltación of the dignity and the rectitud of the men who had engrandecido Rome, were some of the arguments preferred by Augusto and by the illustrious men of culture who supported it and who put their art to the service of this complex political and social aim. Between so many contributions he emphasizes the one of Virgilio and his Eneida, work that celebrates the greatness of Augusto attributing to him divine ancestry, like descendant of Eneas, son this one of Venus, and of whose prestigious figure he was made derive the Latin ancestry. In the set of this ambitious political project, artistic and social, they also appear the currencies, that at this time undergo several modifications as much in the form as in the substance. Two elements in individual are evident in this first stage from the accusations imperial: the high production of the mints located outside Rome (in republican time, the capitolina mint era practically the only one in assets) and the organization of a complete series of nouns, cradle in reusing the already existing ones and the creation of new values to divide them of the currency bases.

Mints decentralized for the gold currencies

Following the model hellenistic, Augusto had an ample variety nouns that included/understood gold currencies, silver and receives. One of new features that better characterize the imperial time are the introduction of gold in the Roman monetary system: from Augusto, all emperors, except for rare exceptions, will command to coin with their own name and its picture nummus aureus or denarius aureus, called simply aureus (golden). This currency, that will become means of interchange spread in all the territory of the Empire, it presents/displays peculiar characteristics. As one already took control of the silver currencies, the gold production was under the direct control of emperor and was developed mainly in centers outside Rome. In the currencies of bronze and oricalco, all coined in Rome, appears abbreviation SC, that synthesizes the formula senatus I consult. This indicates that this type of emissions was subject to the control and the decree of Senate, This abbreviation, dominant first in the field and soon, little by little, of dimensions more and more reduced, characterized all the production it would divide of the Empire until the crisis of century III BC, when these mintings were interrupted in the middle of a generalized crisis and deep of the monetary system. Diarquía (or duplicity of being able) does not have to surprise this relative to emisione monetary (thesis that by the others is not acep tada by all the specialists): in fact s would send to a custom already in use during and last period of the Republic. Next to EMI siones subject to the control of the Senate in per sona of tresviri monetales (three men, magistrates, proposed for the control of 1 currency production), imperatorias existed emisione, trusted to the responsibility of the commander invested with imperium and destined to satisfy the military requirements outside Rome. In addition, this diarquía extended to other sectors of the organization imperial; for example in the administrative military land, in which there were senatoriales and imperial provinces. First, already pacificadas and under the control of Rome long time ago, they were administered by the Senate; second, conquered more recently and still shaken by separatist ferments, they needed the constant presence of military legions and depended directly on the emperor like head of the army. The gold production includes/understands the quinario called submultiple in the middle of, equal golden (golden = 25 denarios of silver; quinario = 12 denarios and means of silver), fraction that took place of sporadic and in amount always limited way, When it was introduced, under Augusto, aureus was valued on the base of pound 1/42 (that is around 7, 80-7, 95 g), like in time of Caesar. With Nerán, the golden one happened to 1/45 of it frees, with the reform of Caracalla to 1/50 and with Diocieciano to 1/60. In time of Constantino, already in first half of century IV, one was born new called gold currency solidus, that had a proportion of pound 1/72 and it divided in semissi (1/2 solid) and tremissi (solid 1/3). Because of the numerous monetary reforms that followed one another during the Empire, the gold piece suffered diverse modifications, as much in the weight as in the frequency of the emissions or the type of elaboration. The alloy, however, always maintained the elevated degree more of purity, and this must be emphasized because it had fundamental importance in the diffusion of the currency. !> In the history of imperial Rome are numerous terms that apparently present/display minimum lexical shades, but that in fact they have great weight. In addition, many titles are used today in a meaning different from which they had then. It becomes necessary, then, to explain what the old Romans understood when they used such terms. Today the dictator word is associated with figures of dictators of unlucky memory, liberticidas tyrants who assume an absolute power by indetermine time. The Latin dictator, before Julio Caesar, was an exceptional magistrate who took power one as resulting from senatodal decision and in circumstances of serious difficulty for the State, mainly of military type. At those moments the exigency prevailed from an only and solid guide not to fall in the chaos, and for that reason the dictator-commander it received extraordinary powers by a period of six months, possibly renewable. Another term that deserves precisions is imperator. This one has very little in common with the modern idea of the emperor according to the model Austrohungarian. It began to be used already at republican time, and when Octavio adopted it meant victorious general, title attributed by soldiers to the commander who had lead them to the victory. In his origin he was, then, a honorary term and of exaltación, and in one second stage the imperator simply became the commander of the army, equipped with, imperium, this is, of the top command, amplest to be able military man, legal and administrative, More ahead, the term acquired the value of titling of the absolute power, with political ion e institunal that stayed later in all the románicas languages. In the imperial currencies, this word usually is brief like IMP. Octavio Augusto, nevertheless, did not please much of the imperator title, and preferred that they called princeps. We associated the dignity of prince to a person of real blood. Princeps Latin era, however, the head of a community, the most eminent citizen, the one than had greater prestige. It did not appear in Republican constitution, and pleased to Octavio, among other reasons, because it granted to east title the Senate to him, the republican organ of greater importance, and thus moved away of himself the suspicion that it was in conflict with that assembly, Another word AUG in the abbreviation of monetales legend). Probably the term derives from the Latin verb augere, 0 is to increase, to increase, with the meant consequence of benefactor, title surely accepted well by the initiator of the new political course. Others think that this title derives from the noun augur (to his time related to augeo), which it means priest, which implies chosen of the Gods. Another term that often is in the legend of the currencies maximus is pontifex: it alludes to the purely honorary position, but of great symbolic value, guard and guarantor of the official religion (in the currencies he appears brief like P. M. . Consul (brief, COS) were a republican title typically: then the consuls were two (in order that they could control itself mutually) and they remained in the position only a year (with object of not giving rise to an excessive attachment to the power). At imperial time, being consulate one of the maximum positions of the State, many emperors attributed to that title and the year of the consulate (indicated in Roman numbers), of where precious chronological data are extracted. The tdbunicia potestas (brief title TR. P) was the most important dignity, created stops to defend the rights of the plebians. Temporary position in the Republic, became life time of the emperors, and like each year renewed, spread the custom to date the reign according to the years of, father of the mother country. Him oonfiñó for the first time to Augusto in year 2 BC, and many of its successors they wanted to adopt it. In the currencies one is always brief, P. P. .

the gold of republican Rome

The production of gold currency characterizes all the imperial Roman period, although during the Republic already there were emissions of that metal. We have already mentioned the call gold of the oath of the Roman currencies of Campania (years 320-268 BC). Let us mention denominated gold now , of uncertain chronology, made up of three nouns (three, two and a scrupulum of weight, respectively in volume to 3. 41, 2. 27 and 1, 1 3 g). The iconography of these small currencies takes in the obverse the bearded Mars face, hairdo with the galea, a characteristic one leather helmet, along with the indication of the value expressed in sestercios. In reverso it appears an eagle on a ray. Surely it can to also assign to the republican period the emission sent by Tito Quincio Flaminio after the victory on Filipo V of Macedonian in Cinoscéfalos in year 197 BC, and which very little units are known. They must to Sila three gold emissions (years 81-79 BC) in a proportion of 1/30 with respect to the pound. Pompeyo followed its example and commanded to coin golden of a weight of pound 1/36. But the production of Roman gold currencies took control of Julio Caesar significant: of campaigns of the Galias, great Caesar took to Rome amounts of that precious metal, and in its long term aim to introduce a currency strong Roman in the international markets, made coin a gold currency of little more than 8 g of weight, that is next to the models hellenistic numismatists.

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