At an almost contemporary time of the one of aes it burdens libral and semilibral (towards end of century IV BC), Rome coins silver currencies using as the diverse mints of Campania, a zone where centuries ago it circulated and made silver currency. The reasons for this election was of practical character: the Romans, who still used in their nominal bronze territory, realized, with concretion spirit that characterized to them, of the manifest realities of the world of southern Italy. In order to be able to participate in commercial interchanges with the rich cities of the Magna Greece, Rome coined in several mints of Campania (Naples, Cumas and Capua) currencies with nonRoman, but own weights and types of the southern regions and siciliotas. The series of silver is based on tetradracma, that, with time, one characterized by legend and different weights: we have didracma based on the Greek foot, of 7. 58 g of weight, accompanied by the ROMAN legend (that are as of year 320 BC), and another one of about 6. 82 g that presents/displays the inscription ROME, (aims of the century IV BC). Between one and another series is one third of transition that still takes the ROMAN legend, but that already has a reduced weight. The Roman currencies of Campania also count on bronze pieces: first BC is something later to year 326., and also they are characterized by a legend in Greek or Latin letters that the minting like Roman indicates. To this southern series they also belong rarest gold currencies (in Rome, until the time of Caesar, 100/44 BC, the use of that metal was sporadic and exceptional). The election of the iconography of these emissions in silver is symptomatic of desire to integrate itself in the Greek commercial circuit; in most of the cases, they send to the Greek culture or the Carthaginian influenced by Greek models.

So that Rome imitates Greek or Punic models?

The will to integrate itself economically in the world of the Magna Greece is not the only reason for these emissions; very frequently, in base of the Roman mintings is the necessity to maintain trimmings military, As for this geographic zone, we remember that after victorious the third samnita war (298-290 BC), to the Romans the doors of southern Italy were opened to them, one very rich and civilized region, that Rome did not take in including in its expansionistic aim. One old hostility between lucanios and tarentinos it was revived indeed after Roman forces parked in the borders of this territory. In year 282 BC, tarentinos, conscious of the sights that the Romans had puttings in them, sank the Roman ships that were in front of the port of the city, of which the war took control inevitable. He is then comprehensible that the maintenance of military contingents in situ outside one of the reasons that they impelled to the emergent power Roman to coin a currency adapted to the local uses, and that could be accepted without too many difficulties by the population. She agrees to emphasize that the Roman currency, mainly in this first stage, follows the direction, already established in policy, of an organization who, avoiding the violent and radical changes, it persecutes a adjustment and an absorption of the local factors, carrying out the phenomenon that the historians designate with the name of romanización, and that without a doubt contributed to guarantee the prolonged stability of the dominion exerted by m Rome. The last Roman emission in Campania dates almost generally towards year 289 BC, and judging by the number of arrived units a we, it had enormous diffusion, that probably continued after the introduction of the denario: cuadrigado is, thus called because in him it appears a quadriga, shot of four horses in bottom, hooked to a car and used to celebrate triumphs or to dispute races, This type of currency presents/displays in reverso the Jupiter figure, with the symbols of the ray and the sceptre, in a quadriga to galope guided by the Victory. Under this iconography is the legend ROME, with letters in hollow or relief. The obverse of these currencies bifronte of a young person presents/displays the efigie. These emissions, always with value of didracma, dracmas or means is also known cuadrigados, similar to the superior numerario, but with the quadriga returned towards the left. Probably the cuadrigado one was created for commercial interchanges with the foreigner, since many of these currencies have been in Spain. Contemporary of the cuadrigado one, and very similar to him by the iconography of the obverse, it is the gold of the oath. The characteristic of these currencies, in addition to the metal in which they coined, is in the type represented in reverso. In an authentic scene, organized well within the limits of redondel, three soldiers move: one takes a pig to the sacrifice, that takes care to complete the other two, armed of lance and sword. In exergo, Rome. Probably cuadrigado or the gold of the oath makes reference to the victory of Sentinum, in the neighborhoods of Dressing room, the year 295 BC, against the samnitas. After this encounter, the itálica Peninsula stopped being a confused set of towns and to enemy States to each other, and it was arranged to become a solid political organization, with a complex organization.

So that the name of Italy?

The peninsula was designated in the course of the centuries with different names, that they alluded to his geographic position, to his products or a its divinities. The Greeks called Hesperia, that is land of the dusk; Enotria, that means land of the wine, and also Saturnia, because according to the legend the God Saturn (old itálica divinity of the seeds) was exiled by Jupiter and it took refuge in Straight, that took the name from saturnia tellus (land of Saturn). Ausonia, of the name of the ausonios, that inhabited the surrounding region of the gulf of Naples, it was another used denomination to designate the peninsula. Italy seems to derive from Italói, Greek name that as well it takes his origin from Vituli or Viteli, town that occupied the extreme end of the peninsula, a zone to the south of the present Catanzaro. These people denominated themselves thus because she had like tótem or ancestor the bull, that in Latin says vitulus. Until century V BC this name it designated only the territory of the brucios, the southern part of Calabria. Soon the name extended to the Campania and Tarento, until, towards century III BC, after the Roman conquests, was applied to all the peninsular region to the south of the Thin one (Liguria) and the Rubicón (Romagna). The cisalpina Galia, to the north of the demarcation lin, did not include in Italy until year 49 BC, when to the inhabitants of this region the citizenship right was granted to them. With the political reorganization carried out by Augusto in year 27 BC, borders were extended until the present Nize (to the West) and to Istria (to the East). Until century III AD., the name of Italy excluded the islands adjacent, that was not assigned administratively to her until the times of Diocleciano emperor (who reigned from 284 to 305).


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