Within vastísimo scope of the Roman currencies, deserves to remember some series of the imperial period, by particularidades that they present/display and that makes of them an interesting subject of study and collecting. One is currencies that by its legend, figures or destiny they are exceptional respect to the normal emissions.

the posthumous currencies and of consecration

Usually they are defined as posthumous all the emissions that contrary present/display in reverso the picture of a late emperor (to custom that locates the imperial figure in the obverse), whereas in the obverse appears the name of alive emperor who has arranged minting. As it is obvious, this case occurred when the remembered sovereign had enjoyed while still alive great popularity. So it is the case of posthumous currencies of Augusto, ordered to coin by its Tiberio successor to celebrate and to remember the figure of founding of Empire. In posthumous currencies not only we found a manifest message of celebration, but also a subtle demagogic speech, as it is evident in the currencies of Tiberio, which, by means of its emissions, tried to emphasize the continuity of great political aim of its predecessor, and to suggest the received augural blessing of Augusto with this aim. Also posthumous, and therefore ordered by the successor of the glorified sovereign, although with peculiar characteristics, they are the currencies of CONSECRATION (in which, generally, appears the word, consacratio). First of all, they are distinguished of first by the figurative type constant: is very frequently a funeral pyre dragged by a quadriga, an eagle flying (variant: the bird can be inn in a sceptre or a globe) or also a closed temple. If the consecrated personage, are an empress, the iconography he presents/displays peacock or the Mercy, that a sacrifice offers on a tripod, or carpento (funeral car) dragged by two mules and the Augusta transported to the sky by an eagle. Of the description of the figures selected for these currencies the reason is inferred by which they were coined: one is created currencies to solemnize the deification of emperor or of its spouse. Between the consecration currencies, generally of silver, we remember an emission in particular, of the time of Filipo the Arab (years 244-249), in order to celebrate the first millenarian of Rome: they were of alloy of very low silver and took the image of emperor with the radiating crown in obverse and the altar or the eagle in reverso.

the restitution currencies

These currencies reproduce previous emissions faithfully, of republican time or impeda, or without legal value for being distant or fused. This production had the purpose of remembering to personages or events of past, with evident propagandistic aims. only variant respect to the original ones was in the presence of name of emperor, under who the new emission was briefed and he added rest (it is rarer that he appears restituit). Chronological, its appearance is limited the years that go from Tito (years 79-81) a Marco Aurelio (years 161-180). Nothing easy to find in the numismatic market, the restitution currencies used to coin themselves in silver, but there is unit of gold and bronze. Tito, Domiciano and Nerva produced that type of currencies of the time of the dynasty Julia Claudia; Trajano, currencies of to time between Augusto and Tito, and exists emissions ready by Marco Aurelio and Lucio Vero.

the colonial currencies

Some Roman currencies of imperial period is divided in PROVINCIAL and COLONIAL ÚRBICAS (or policemen), according to the structure administrative of the region that emitted them. One is accusations made in diverse countries that constituted the Empire, are concrete expression of one of the great problems that affected the Roman civilization and caused their collapse. The culture of these regions, some of which it was to great distance of the i, was radically different from rolled it, then, a lack of understanding nía of difference of language and the religion and the political organization, elements all that appear clearly reflected in the currencies, characterizing them and determining its acceptance and ciculación. Great part of the colonial currencies (to use a generic term that it designates all) present/display, then, those differences since they regulate the concrete life of the towns: often the legend is written in Greek characters, and exhibit an iconography whose monument symbols, divinities, reproduction certain, description of some rites of the daily life, are more near the culture and the mentality from the towns to which they are destined. In some of those currencies, also impropiamente Greek imperial calls, are the representation of Serapis (divinity grecoegipcia that it had in Alexandria its greater and more famous temple), the personification of Nile river (currencies of Alexandria), the mountains of the Argeo (region of Capadocia) or bust of Vile Abgar (king of Edesa, in the north of Syria). In any case, the colonial currencies, beyond the concrete evocaciones of a distant world, presents/displays a specific iconography: the type of the Sileno (mitológico to be imagined with human form, but with ears, tail and horse hooves), the She-wolf nursing the binoculars (evident remission to the original mythology of the hegemonic town), a man who guides two oxen uncidos with a yoke (one of the main activities of the provinces was agriculture) or military standards (to emphasize the campaigns of conquest of the territories at issue). The metals used for these peculiar emissions were always limited the silver and the bronze. In effect, they do not exist golden colonial.

the cult to the emperor

In all the archaic civilizations, and mainly in the hellenistic world, the cult was effective of mediating king whereas between men and the divinities. This vision of sagrada royalty, that the Romans detested in the first years of the Republic, went away spreading and fortifying as it made worse the crisis of State. In a while dice, the generals Roman, eager to affirm to be able absolute tie to its own person, they began to imitate the figure of divinizado king of hellenistic type, among other causes by more and more close contact with certain civilizations, for political and military reasons. Let us think, thus, in the behavior of Antonio who, fascinated from kill time by the hellenistic world, once in Egypt adopted the style of life and the values of East. Julio Caesar, who had carried out the religious position of pontifex maximus, was divinizado after dead with the title of, Divus luilus ” by decree of Senate. Although Octavio officially rejected any cult to its person, accepted the title of Augusto (year 27 BC) tie to its religious functions, while in his currencies often it appears the eagle, symbol of the divinity. Where more radical one was conception of sovereign divinizado, dedicated to temples and altars to him (Lyon and Colony). In East, Octavio received the titles of Caesar Olympic and Zeus liberating. To his death one became Divine Augusto and was placed between the other Gods. As it is observed well in the currencies, in pñmer moment the Roman civilization only accepted the cult of the emperor if it had passed away, but soon, and also under it influences more and more powerful of the helenismo orients, the sovereign tried to receive divine honors and cults while still alive, as it happened in case of Calígula, the subsequent Nerón and all emperors from end of the century l. The honor of being elevated to the divinity had to have corresponded only to the best ones, but the political contingencies of those years caused that this privilege granted a very mediocre emperors. Thus, from Caesar to Constantino the Great one, not less than 47 sovereigns and their respective spouses obtained consecration. But in the currencies 30 deified personages only appear: often the consecration appears confirmed by the ex- legend sc, whose meaning is that this honor confe@a by senatorial decree (the letters sc mean senatus I consult.


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