They are of high stature, they have the white skin and its face reflects vigor. Not only their hair are naturally red, but that they intensify hiscolor by artificial means. In effect, they often wash the hair with lime grout, they soon tie it at the top of the head andthey drop on the nape of the neck. They remember therefore the aspect of the Bread satyrs, because these cares return their so thick hair that they seemhorse horsehairs. Some shave the beard, and others take it cuts. The noble shave the cheeks, but they are let grow moustaches as much, that it covers the mouth to them., thus sawthe Romans (through the pen of Diodoro Sículo) to the gáos of the time of Augusto, and still today, in the collective imagination, thosemen imagine corpulentos, coarse, with hispid hairs and moustaches that hide ferocious mouths. They were nomadic, organized incianes, implacable pregivers, accustomed to carry out you coreread to seize of the necessary thing to expenses of the bordering towns, without havinga conception of the territorial conquest nor of a estnicturada poiftica organization on institutions. Established originally inCentral Europe, through successive migrations arrived at France, the British Islands, the Iberian Peninsula and northern Italy, being fused or superposing themselves to the preexisting local towns. Caesar (100-44 BC) long talks about and with respect these people inOf beautiful gallico, a cultured and penetrating work in which, besides to describe to the uses and customs of the Gauls and their religion, they carefully distinguish the diverse tribes, as well as the regions where they were established. The Romans already had known the Gaulsin century IV BC, and more concretely between 387 and 386 (according to others, when, defeated in the battle to few kilometers in the confluenceof the rivers Allia and Tíber, they underwent the invasion and the serve the capital by those towns.

outlandish Imitations of estateras and tetradracmas

Celtas of the Galia began to coin currency between end of century IV and the beginning of III BC, thus giving beginning to a productionmonetal practically of imitation in its totality, inspired by the pieces known in the interchanges through the Mediterranean andport of Massalia (present Marseilles) in the West, and by the valley of the Danube in the East. In century II BC, also celtas of Europepower station began to coin currencies, imitating those of Lisímaco of Thrace, Larisa or Thasos. Deeply unstable and instinctive in their social and military organization, the Gauls (or celtas) also transmitted to their currencies a rateirrational, an abstraction far distant of the productions of the Greek numerario to which, on the other hand, they were sent directly. currencies that surely knew celtas through commerce were the estateras of gold and tetradracmas of Filipo II and AlexanderMagno, the universal currency of then. In one second stage, the types object of imitation were the Romans. Whereas the Greek currency is inspired by a harmonic balance, in a refined naturalismo in the representation of the human figure, ofworld animal and of the vegetable, the Barbarians disturb this universe, reducing it which only distantly the spirit remembers andiconography original. The degeneration of the types, dictated by a rupturista fantasy and a defendant tendency towards the abstraction andthe ornamentales reasons, lead to an alteration of the form and an eccentric esquematización of the figurative elements. If to celtas they needed a culture of the currency, certainly they did not need precious metals:the gold deposits of the Rin, ofthe Pyrenees and of the Alps, filones of silver of the Tarn and the Auvernia, and the tin of Britain provided sufficient raw material stopsto coin currencies destined to the commercial interchanges. In the production celta is rather frequent the electron. !>

altered Characteristics of classic models

The currencies celtas, apparently poor as soon as that does not have authentic originality, is rich in fantasy, is full of life andthey are unmistakable; between the towns that lived the vast céltico territory very was spread the type that represents in the obversea head, created on the model of the pictures of Alexander Magno, and who in general represents the head of the tribe; and in reversohorse (favorite animal in the Gallic tipología), sometimes single and sometimes guided by auriga. Let us examine a estatera of gold ofbeginnings of century II to, C. coming from the region of present Britain: the obverse still presents/displays a face modeled in accordance withorganic proportions, although – what the profile constitutes a frequent enough anomaly in the Gallic currencies in general is not welltrim and redondel is too small for the figure that locks up. It turns out interesting to observe how have reproduced the hair, now streamlined with decorative reasons, waves, forms that remember geometric reasons more related to the world forplants that with a faithful reflection of the reality. In reverso, the figure of the horse androcéfalo (that is, with human head) occupies a partmodest of the space del that arranges, whereas, and this one is an element very fre counts, the field is occupied by figurationsschematic minors who can be constituted by geometric signs, wheels, stars and figures of diverse nature and greatvariety. Also they are very interesting the currency of the parisios, inhabitants of the region gift (today is Paris. Also in this case it arrives untiledge of redondel the head whose profile is disturbed in synthetic forms, of great expressive force and of refined decorative taste. The eyesight front, exaggerated opened, characterizes east profile that takes in front of the neck a barquita, symbol of the city and ofnautae parisiaci, small dealers who dedicated themselves to the fluvial commerce. It means that in the currencies part was reflected ofreality indigenous and more properly local, enriching them with a new documentary value. Also the horse of reverso deserves oneobservation: one is a very streamlined animal, all a concession to the decorative and barely faithful taste to the naturalismo. The reason for the eye very extended is exaggerated until the point to become the only anthropomorphous element that lasts in some currencies ofzone of central Europe: this figure remembers the model so little del that it comes, that is a human face, that some have tried to see inshe them symbols of a local cult, but without reaching any certain conclusion. Also it is possible to be spoken, immediately, of total decomposition of the human figure in currencies of the belovacos, established in Belgium. In themthe force of the abstraction is almost disgregadora, and few elements stay you identified: the eye is distinguished, whereas in the placeof the ear a star is placed. The calls currencies de la Cruz imitate reverso of the Rock currencies. They come from the valley ofTarn, in southern France, and that present type extended to the western Languedoc and Rosellón, although in these regions it imaginesa Vista flower from above, with truely peculiar a iconográfico criterion: in the obverse they present/display a feminine profile that rememberscurrencies of Siracusa, known by these towns thanks to another imitation, the one of Rhode, Rhodian colony in the gulf of Roses (Gerona). Thismonetal production today deserves that its dignity is recognized and that becomes object of studies and attention, rejecting the old considerationof which they belonged to a little while in the history of the currency that could be ignored.

Incomprehensible but useful

In Greece, the international trade was regulated by few currencies, universally accepted and recognized, generally coinedin póleis of the great prestige and authority (we think, for example, in the great prestige that reached lechuzas of Athens). To beemitting authority of this privileged currency was source of great economic advantages that derived from enormous entrances by the right ofminting (the difference of value between the gross metal and the coined metal) and of preferred relations in the interchanges. In the worldold, the birth and diffusion of the leagues (associations of several cities that adopted and maintained the same currency) had, betweenother purposes, to promote the diffusion of some currencies with preference to others. Another system very spread between the primitive towns was the imitation, that consisted of the retort, without the smaller scruple or interestfigurative, of the currency that knew through their interchanges. In effect, the Barbarians reproduced in great amounts redondel ofprecious metal del which they did not include/understand nor the symbolic value of figunes adopted, nor the cripciones, but whose tilidad caught ofnmediato. It is obvious that for the Barbarians who did not recognize nor they observed the laws of the civilized towns the more, had little importancerespect to the weight and the kindness of the metal. In addition, they reproduced crudely and at random the legend, for mprensibles them, and alejadelprototype even the figurative representation, since they completely had a sensitivity different from the one of the towns of called cultureclassic.


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