At the beginning of century V BC, the kings of Macedonian, a region to the north of the Greek Peninsula coined currency with their name. WithAlexander 1 (years 498-454 BC) coined first dracmas and the first estateras, that present/display a rider with atuendo Macedonian. This dynasty of the Argeadas, that gave to men of the stature of Filipo II and Alexander Magno, was considered Barbarian and foreign byGreek. In effect, while the Greek Peninsula registered a constant progress in the scopes social, economic and political, in Macedonianthe population was constituted by agriculturists and shepherds, governed by a monarchy of semifeudal type, that had contributed very littleto the development of its society. Only with Filipo II (336 years 359 to BC), indeed while Greece crossed one of deeper hispolitical crises, the Macedonian monarchy consolidated and it modernized on the base of the knowledge and the conscience of the validity ofGreek culture, that became the foundation of the great renovation in Macedonian. The acquisition from an exit to the sea, with the annexation of the Greek cities of the Termaico gulf, the Calcídica peninsula and the coasttrácica, along with the possibility of operating the gold mines of the Pangeo, incorporated Macedonian to the great commercial traffic and they allowed himto have very remarkable financial means. In effect, the gold currency, exceptional in the Greek world, was made habitual already under Filipo II:let us remember the estateras with the head of Apolo in the obverse and the beam to galope in reverso, that also takes the name of the sovereign. Zeus in the obverse, and reverso a horse mounted by a naked rider, with a palm, or a soldier with Macedonian attire, constitutesthe types chosen for the two faces of tetradracmas of silver, with explicit reference to the descendants of the Greek divinity, according tothe use of the noble people of the Hélade, with which the Macedonian dynasty sought to compare itself. Zeus and his Heracies son are, then, prestigious ancestors of Filipo II and its son Alexander who, after its access to the throne in 336 year BC, adopts for the currencies ofsilver the iconography of Heracles touched with the skin of the lion. In reverso enthroned Zeus appears again, with the eagle and the sceptre. estateras of gold, very spread during the reign of Alexander, take in the obverse the head of Athenian returned towards the right, with yelmocorintio ornado with a enroscada serpent, and in reverso the Nike (personification of the victory) with crown and sends. The Macedonian sovereign continues the ambitious and foresighted plan of his father, Filipo li, trying to seat the Macedonian hegemony in Greece. Educated by great Aristáteles philosopher, Alexander shows to a deep respect by the Greek culture and the civilization, and is convinced ofthat the necessary political renovation must be carried out under the égida one of always lives classic Greek tradition. The dream of a kingdomuniversal then reality in the creation becomes of an empire that goes of the Greek Peninsula to valleys of lndo (near the present Pakistan), occupying regions of limitless material and cultural wealth. In its sudden conquest of regions like Smaller Asia, Mesopotamia, Egypt andterritories unknown and inaccessible like present Afghanistan, Uzbekistán and Tadjikistán, Alexander found cities that take their name(we remember, among them, Alexandria of Egypt, destined to become more populated and just a short time in center rich of East) inas it leaves to military trimmings and a bureaucratic apparatus that modifies deeply those regions, where before prevailed the nomadismoand a very primitive economy. Alexander confers new impulse to the atrophied economy of the Greek and Eastern world, putting in circulationan appreciable amount of money, through the expenses of the army, imposing public works, the prizes to the veterans and the welded athe mercenarios. The problem of the currencies of Alexander Magno is indeed in the difficulty to identify them, given the plurality of the mints thatthey emitted currencies with its name. Altogether, nevertheless – and in this we found a great newness and a deep renovation with respect toGreek tradition, can be spoken of a currency even uniforms in its multiplicity, unified in the types and the weights, cradle in the use ofgold and the silver, like representing the union of the Persian civilization, more given to the use of the gold that the Greek (we rememberproduction of the daricos), whose currency was based on the silver. In order to simplify and to unify the diverse systems you weighedGreek, Alexander adopted the foot attic for all his currencies.

the universal empire

From the analysis of the monetales types of Alexander numerosísimos are obtained data of their political program and its ambitious aim to createa universal empire. In tetradracmas, the returned masculine face is very beautiful towards the right, with the skin of the lion with which it foughtand to that it overcame Heracies in one of his proverbial works, placed like yelmo. The expression, very intense, transmits a message ofresolution, power and nobility, dowries all of them necessary for that set out to be a great conqueror, able to grasp with forcereins of almost everybody civilized of then. It is recognized with enough unamimity that this masculine figure is indeed Alexander. It is doubtless that the characteristics are verycharacteristic, but in any case the picture does not separate much from other personifications of divinities that already a long time ago appearedin the Greek currencies, like, for example, the profile of Zeus in tetradracma coined by Filipo li, father of Alexander. The idea of Alexander Magno consisted of assigning itself as much to a solid tradition in the West as in East, and insisting on this directioneven in the monetary, then scope more than ever ideal instrument of spreading and propaganda. Using as an image that noit broke too much with the tradition and that in addition was sent to Olympic descendants explicitly, the objective could be consideredplace setting in Greece, very tie to its own divinities and for accustomed a long time seeing represented them in the currencies. Alexander had to count, nevertheless, with the Eastern tradition, that wished to see its sovereign identified with a divinity. In Egypthe made crown Pharaoh, obtaining from oráculo of Amón the investiture and the confirmation of being son of the God. Also for these areasgeographic the iconográfico election of AlejandroHeracies had a very positive impact and responded to the tradition. For that reason we tend ato conserve a idealizada image, the one that appears in tetradracmas of Alexander, even recognizing that represents something new in that processtowards the naturalistic veracity that will lead themselves to the pictures. These we will later find years in the busts ofdiádocos and of the epígonos of Alexander (the successors that distributed the immense territory of their conquests), that much more that hethey needed to be recognized in his appearances to be able to maintain the authority. Alexander was a symbol, represented the constituted power andlittle he mattered which were their true characteristics; but when the authority is put constantly in discussion, when they are frequent andsudden the successions of the sovereigns in the power, as it happened after the death of Alexander, become more important to disclose withprecision the image of that shows that power. Returning to tetradracmas, we observe very interesting reverso that represents enthroned Zeus and with the symbols of its power: figure, even evoking the famous statue of Fidias (second half of century V BC), presents/displays the artistic canons of the hellenistic culture, that they privilege the movement, claroscuro and certain dramatización. In effect, although the divinity imagines On guard sedente, noit is absolutely static: a foot is advanced with respect to the other, the torso appears in three quarters, you fold them of the clothesthey are stood out, and the arms are not driven of symmetrical way.


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