The currencies of the carolingios

Often the excellent paper has been emphasized that the germanic towns had not only in the dissolution of Roman Empire, but also insubsequent the social and political evolution and in the events that took to the creation of new structures and to radical changes inthe history of Europe. In complex group of the Germans, emerged with might the francs, town that had occupied incentury v great part of the Roman Galia. This ethnic group, composed by several tribes, found her identity and its political unit with Ciodoveo (years482-51 l), grandson of Meroveo, from that took its name the dynasty of the merovingios. A factor you say vo in the excellent paper that soonit would carry out this dynasty in European history was, without a doubt, the conversion to the catholicism of Ciodoveo and, with him, all its town. Withthis initiative, motivated for clearly political reasons, the frank king was offered as allied ideal of the papado one and it gained pleaseemperor of Bizancio. Thanks to it, obtained that its town progressed and it was organized peacefully. This it was the departure point oftransformation of the francs in a basic component of the development of the medieval civilization.

effective kings

The francs, characterized by an effective and articulated internal organization, and owners of unalas richer and fertile regions of the West, under Pipino de Heristal (years 687-714) they could be gloriar of a kingdom of great extension and enviable unit. Overthrown the sovereignsmerovingios (calls idle kings, Pipino (founding of the dynasty of the Pipínidas, soon carolingios calls) created a kingdom thatit included/understood almost all present France and part of Germany. Also were able and capable their successors, between whom they emphasize hisson Carlos (years 714-741), to who must the victory on the Arabs in Poitiers, triumph that was worth the sobrename to him of Martei, that issmall Mars; and its Pipino grandson the Brief one (years 751-768), that concluded an important alliance with the papado one, destined to give political fruitsimportant. Less excellent it was not the work of son of Pipino, Carlos, call soon Carlomagno (years 768-814), who continued the trajectorypolicy and military man of its predecessors. To Carlomagno it first of all must the defeat of the lombardos, submissive the francs in year 744, withwhat its aim one of the Barbarian States that occupied Italy after the fall of the Roman Empire, But more important political reflection foundof this company it was the reinforcing of the alliance with the Pope, then Adriano 1 (years 772-795). Carlos could, then, continue hisconquests in name of the diffusion and safeguard of the catholic religion. In a moment almost all centrooccidental Europe was underfrank hegemony, and the power of Carlos devoted the Christmas Eve of year 800 in Rome, when Pontiff Leon 111 (years 795-816) proclaimed it

the sacred Roman empire

In the three terms that define the new kingdom , empire, sacred, Roman) locks in everything a universe of history, values and messages that, in the society of the time, they had a remarkable weight and a validity. First of all, is evident desire to recreate, at least of word, empire, synonymous term at that time of political and bureaucratic centralism, of a unit that in those years had to sound like the remedyto the great dispersion and the disintegration that, at all the levels, had convulsionado the western civilization. The fact that it stopsto define a model of unit, greatness, force and power was dusted the Roman world, indicates the weight that continued having the great traditionof the Latin civilization, able to serve as model and to arouse the most vital forces of a world that, however, seemed to hurry inthe ruin. The term that comes near more to the reality ofperhaps century ix is

the poor currencies of the francs

In the territory of the francs it is attended a progressive impoverishment of the iconography in this way and of intrinsic value of the currenciesthat, more and more rarely coined in gold, with time they are devaluated. At time merovingia, the first currencies (first half of centuryvi) they continue imitating the types of Anastasio and Justiniano, that had circulated long tiempo in the dominions of the francs. Soon it appearsmonograma of Christ, in order to attest the bond that had settled down with the papado one. In the first decades of the century I, it reappears, although of way very degraded from the artistic point of view, the outlined human figure (is not possible to speak, certainly, ofpicture), with own clothes of the old Romans. Like it happened in certain period in the area it orients – bizantina, onlyit finds the figure de la Cruz. As of year 700 they do not appear more than monogramas than distinguishes the currencies. At time merovingia, the commerce was very restricted, and the currencies served mainly to pay taxes (that often were eliminatedfusing coined pieces). The production was characterized, in any case, by the traveling mints, that produced currencies verytufas, and by the proliferation of factories whose work and legitimacy were very difficult to control. There were mints assigned tomonasteries, the episcopal seats and to the cities (Noyon, Bordeaux, Poitiers, Chalon-surSaone and other many).

the intervention of Carlomagno

In time of Carlomagno, the economic reality still appears more critic than under the merovingios kings: the productive activity ofcities, now practically depopulated, almost there was disappear, and the expansionism of the Arab world in the Mediterranean had blocked almostall the interchanges between East and the West, the constant epidemics of plague and hombrunas decimated the population, taking to Europeto a little while critical. The fluvial ways and routes were impassable, to be in favor infested of bandits and of their state of abandonment. In addition, the feudal organization, on whom the world was based carolingio, was characterized by the self-sufficiency, with the one resultstatic and closed economy. In similar situation, Carlomagno tried to put order in a poor and confused monetary production (the weights andthe law varied continuously), introducing the monometalismo, this first of all is, abolishing the gold emissions and increasing those ofsilver: the @CHRISTIANA RELIGIO, (Christian religion). The custom that was hadtax under the merovingios, this is, the multiplication of the centers of production of currencies, tended to continue under the carolingios, alreadyit was by real necessity or affirmation to be able and wealth. In year 864, by virtue of important edicto of Pitres, Carlos the Bald one, one of the heirs of Carlomagno (the others was Lotario andLudovico) reduced the mints to nine and rigidly fixed the types that had to adapt: in the obverse the name of king, ready in legendto circulate, monograma or the cross; and in reverso the indication of the city and the cross. In these currencies it often appears the motto, that means that the regal power of sovereign came directly from God. Another legend, compatible in the message and not less interesting, is munus divinus (munus means in Latin gift, gift, that isin some rarest gold currencies of period of Ludovico Pío (years 814840), third son of Carlomagno and his successor. The legend appearedalways closely tie to the crown of laurel, symbol of the imperial dignity.