The currencies of the Eastern countries

In the territory occupied by the old Persian Empire, they were developed throughout time civilizations very outposts in the planeseconomic and culture. Until the conquest by Alexander Magno, that was a very active region, sought by the diverse powersforeigners who dominated it in the course of the centuries (among them, we remember to Romans and bizantinos). Nevertheless, the inhabitants ofthe region, heirs of a great historical and political tradition that could gloriar of sovereigns like Ciro Grande and Darío, neverthey resigned to become uebio put under and vasallo of another power. For example, he was long and tenacious the resistance of the childbirths, thatsuccessors direct of the Aqueménidas considered and they refused to be subjugated by Rome. In year 53 BC, the childbirths defeated to Crasoin the battle of Carras, and definitively they were not put under until half-full of century 11 AD. In year 226 it took the power in Irandynasty of the Sasánidas, that vindicated the direct descendants of the old Persia de Ciro the Great one, from a political point of view, cultural and religious. A directed tendency began then to resist the opening to the hellenistic culture, that until thatmoment they had maintained the childbirths. This ignition, nacionalismo were made evident mainly in the policy of open hostility againstthe Romans, defendant of being the usurpers of territory orients. Very peculiar and significant it was the reviviscencia of Mazdaism, old religion founded by Zarathustra (or Zarathustra) probably between añosl 000 and 600 BC The name of, derives from ofadored divinity, Ahura Mazdáh.

the currencies of the Sasánidas

Often in reverso of the currencies of the Sasánidas are references to the mazdeísta religion: in center it appears a pyre of whichthey elevate sagradas flames, and the sides one imagines the Great King, who were also religious head, and a priest. In spite of the open onexenophobia (this is, the manifest hostility towards the foreigners and their civilizations), typical of the sasánidas sovereigns, firstengravers of currencies were Greek and Roman artists. To them we must to splendid pictures in the obverse and beautiful scenes to them inreverso, among them the one of the worshippers of sacred fire, that we finished mentioning. One of the most beautiful and rich pictures is the one ofShapur 1 (241-272): the engraving is very precise and meticulous, but mainly it is worth the trouble to remember the gorgeous and peculiar hairdo, resemblance aa crown finished off by a sphere, probably symbol of celestial globe and, therefore, of to be able undisputed of that shows it. Another peculiar element (that returns to be recorded in pieces of orfebrería and seals) is that, even being a profile picture, the shoulders imagine front, with object to transmit the idea of physical prestancia and power. Little by little, the sasánidas currenciesthey returned more and thinner (like the currencies, esquifadas bizantinas), and it independently of the moments of great prosperityeconomic and of political fortune that we know this kingdom. Under Cosroes 11 (years 590 to 628), it even seemed that it go to recreate, in everythingits extension and with its power, the old Persian Empire. The image also experienced a deterioration and a esquematización more and moremanifestos, phenomenon that went approaching Persia to the dopción of abstract caligrafismo of Islam.

Selyucidas and Ottomans: The Turks in the power

The sasánida kingdom fell in year 637 by work of the Arabs, who indeed in century VII lived a little while on great expansion and diffusionof its culture. From century VIII, the Turks was infiltrating in the Islamic world. One was a town that, from the region of the Turquestan, in central Asia, it had been moved towards the West. The contact with the Arab world took to the Turks to become to the Islam, soonthey gained the favor (it give to the Muslim cuts those that occupied positions prestige and of being able. Haci century XI, reinforced by a new big waveof Turkish towns guided by the Seiguq head (from whom comes the name of sultanes) the Turks advanced hacie the Mediterranean, conquering the city of Jerusalem in añ for great preoccupation of the Christian world. The attitude of the Turks haci @ you grinos Christians who arrived at Earth Santa was so hostile and does violence to, and the persecutions sodespiadadas, which the access to these regions so wanted for the faithfuls became impossible, with negative repercussions in the relationscommercial with East. The intransigencia of the Turks did not bear relation to the prudent and foresighted behavior from the Arabs, whothey included/understood the enormous economic advantage well that could be derived to guarantee the freedom and La Paz to the travelling ones that they went to EarthSanta. The serious crisis that at that time was crossing bizantino Imperio, still considered bastion of the crisdad againstunfaithful, it started up an ample movement in name of the liberation of Santo Sepulcro, who lead to first crossed (years1096-1099). The currencies of the Seiyúcidas present/display characteristics similar to the Arabs (because they were also Muslim), but undergo the influenceof the sasánida art. In dirrema@ that is the name of its numerario, in addition to diverse symbols, like the sun and the lion, that clearlythey allude to the force and to the power of the Turkish kingdom, we also found the human figure, reproduced with he himself criterion of shoulders infrontal position, that is observed in the Persian production. For example, the currencies of sultán Ruknuddin Shah, of first half of centuryXili, presents/displays a man to horse, with the head of profile and frontal shoulders. As of the first years of century xiv, sultán Osmán 1 (1 301-1326), caudillo of a town originating also of central Asia, foundedin the region of Bitinia, the sudoccidental coast of the Black Sea, the first nucleus of that in a moment would be Ottoman Empire. The power ofOttoman Turks (name that derives, as it is obvious, of founding of the dynasty) came to replace with enough rapidity to the one of the Turks yúcidas, thanks mainly to a remarkable organization in the political and military plane. The Ottomans conquered Smaller Asia, region thanBizantino Imperio no longer was in conditions for controlling, pressed as it were in favor of very serious economic problems, political andthe military. By these years, Constantinopla only could count on a undisciplined mercenario army, I lack of moral. In a momentOttoman hegemony reached Europe: in 1389 in Kosovo, Serb, and in 1396 in Nicópolis, Hungary, sultán Bayaceto 1, nicknamed, the Ray “, it routed serious to the Christian armies, that thus saw seriously threatened the West, Europe was afflicted in those yearsby many evils: the diverse States, being even threatened, had not been able to create a common front. The antagonism between papado eempire constituted a continuous source of divisions and fights. In this climate of political crisis and disorganization to mi’litar, the worldChristian did not know to take advantage of the moment great dispersion by which he crossed the powerful Ottoman Empire. In effect the irruption, coming from steppes of Mongolia, of ferocious Tamerián, opened a period of deep crisis in Ottoman kingdom. uncertainties and the political errors of the Christians allowed to reorganize to sultán 11 Mehmet the Conqueror (1451-1481), untilpoint to occupy and to conquer Constantinopla, that the 29 of May of 1453 fell in Turkish hands, ending with it a periodparticularly significant even for the western culture. The Ottoman Empire, destined to last until the first decades of centuryXX, it mainly must to his great longevity to a solid ministrativa organization adand to that, mainly in his beginnings, one worried about noto bother the subjects of nonMuslim religion, allowing them to conserve its language, original culture and traditions. Like allEastern monarchies, also the Ottoman extracted much force of maridaje of being able politician and religious power: sultán reunited in hisperson the charisma of extreme priest and the authority of sovereign. The Ottoman currencies are very abundant, given the continuity of the emitting authority, but at the same time, and from a point of viewiconográfico, is rather repetitive and preservative. Since one is the production of an Islamic town, it lacks the figurehuman, but also the images of another type are absent, and during centuries and centuries it presents/displays only legend and dates. The numerario consistsof pieces of gold, cequíes, based on the most famous venecianos, and . Of them they exist multiple and submultiple of silver:, aspers, you stop and zolotas. The number of mints, distributed by all the territory was considerable.

India: monetal complexity

If to deal with the Turkish currencies in schematic and summarized terms it is relatively easy, turns out arduous in end to describeto complex andvaried production of the peninsula of lndostán. The currencies archaic Indians often are indebted, in the weight or the characteristicsiconográficas, of the great bordering civilizations: it piénsese in the older monetales forms, simple curved rods or ingots ofmetal which they reproduced the weights of the Persian currencies, or in the productions that followed the conquests of Alexander Magno, of clearGreek derivation. In addition, after the Muslim invasion of century I, are the typical currencies without images, with the classic onescoránicas phrases that proclaim the Islamic faith. The origin of the currencies Indians can be made overcome to the centuryv BC, with monetiformes pieces of silver or bronze, of about 3 g, calls

the difficult affirmation of the currency in Japan

The birth of the currency in Japan is quite dark and difficult to reconstruct. This archipelago of continent Asian was bylong refractory time to the contact with the West, and mainly maintained relations with China and Korea (from where it was introducedbuddhism, religion that coexists with the traditional sintoísmo, based on the cult the ancestors). And indeed of China, according to it seems, the Japanese concerned the first currencies, but they only adopted its use of stable way towards the century I AD. Before this period, one long phase is documented in which the exchange, using as rice and silk prevailed mainly or objects like bronze mirrors ormanufactures ceramics. Of years 708 to 958, on the model of the Chinese currencies, twelve series of pieces followed one another, mainly ofbronze, known like doce currencies dinásticas divided according to the time to which they belong. These currencies, destined to devaluate itselfprogressively with time, they please did not find the Japanese population, that during centuries continued resorting to the exchange, evenwhen in the West the commerce was perfected and it intensified more and more. Towards end of century XVI, in Japan began to circulate, oban ” of gold, oval laminae of several dimensions, that take striker pinsdifferent and in that they appeared legend written with red. Another tipología, very compatible to the Chinese, is the one of the round currencies withsquare orifice in center. From beginnings of century xix is others, also of gold, rectangular form and with dimensionsreduced (23 xs 15 mm), with floral legend and designs. Only in second half of century XIX, Japan left the isolation and the feudal structure and opened to the West, adopting his moremodern and consolidated interchange systems, and a use of the currency that, seen actualp. q successes of yen, does not leave to doubt aljuna oncapacity of the Japanese to assimilate whatever quickly learns of the others. In Chinese very old data of the use of compatible systems of interchange to the currency: in century Xi BC already circulated currencies, in form offish, of shell, knife, axe, key and even of hoe (the calls bu, , which, anticipating itself surprising towestern monetary system, presented/displayed the name or the symbol of the emitting authority and the value. The form makes specific was sent toreal objects that had constituted the interchange parameters until that moment.

the long life of the CASH

Of the emperor of the Qin dynasty, Shi call Huang-you (years 221-206 BC), the Chinese currencies took control quite regular and homogenous, unlike which it happened in the previous decades, in which the monetary production was chaotic, object of continuous and drasticdevaluations and lacking of stability. That emperor we mainly know it by the recent finding its amazing armyterra-cotta, of 1 0, 000 soldiers of natural size. The sovereign had the merit to unify the Chinese Empire after a period of greatinternal divisions and fights. In addition, it caught the importance and the utility of counting on an only mint, expression of unit and stabilitypolicy. One paid attention, then, an only scale of weights and values and one double emission of currencies: one of gold and another one of bronze. The production insilver only began in China towards end of century 11 BC The gold currencies had a restricted circulation very, reserved to the payments, internacionales and, in any case, limited the aristocratic and powerful families. The bronze currencies were used fordaily transactions, used to be of fused bronze and had circular form, with a square orifice in center. The explanation of thisit forms is the following one: the Chinese thought that the sky was round and the Earth, square, Seems very interesting then the ingenious translationformal of this conception of universal, that also emphasizes the importance attributed to the currency. These metal pieces I saw was called ch’jen (, cash, according to the Latin transiiteración) and lasted incredibly releases: from the years of emperor ofterra-cotta soldiers (aims of century 111 BC), that codified and stabilized the use, until the first decades of century XX, whenpolitical and social changes lived by China were also reflected in the numismatist. The classification of cash is very complex, mainlyin which one talks about the old emissions. In these currencies are several ideogramas that they brief the name or the motto ofemperor (and they allow, therefore, to go back to a date or a period), separate the expression of value of the piece.

the CATERPILLARS of the old Siam

The currencies of the Siam, present Thailand, surely are influenced by the production of India and China. That one is also a region ofgreat traditions and of ancient history: in effect, the tribes tais already occupied it in the century I BC They are very interesting firstcurrencies of bronze in canoe form, the typical boats local, very narrow and long, apt for the product transportagrarian, and still today in use. Like in tantísimas archaic societies, in the old region where soon the kingdom of the Siam was developed, stillare armbands of average armor used as of interchange (century I BC). Of safe Chinese influence they are the silver currenciesin chair or open book form to mount, in which they appear, in Chinese characters, the names of the dynasties under whichthey emitted these pieces, characterized by a highest metallic purity. At medieval time the production of an absolutely characteristic gold currency begins, @, bullet coin ” (or

the ring, first African currencies

The ancestors of the currency not only can look for in the Mediterranean area and the Asian continent, but also in the old oneAfrica, where discoveries have been carried out interesting. The ‘orimeros object-currency are located in the western zone of continent, that includes/understands the present States of Nigeria, Benín, Togo andGhana, regions in which were extended deals with it slaves. The form of these objects was to circulate and annular, common to almost allinterchange experiences, once surpassed the phase of exchange itself. Currency-I fasten with rings African were mainly of copper, they denominated manillen (or manillas) and its value depended on weight. Are units of several dimensions, but the greater ones canto arrive 3 kg even though In a moment these ring was decorated, until the point of which it has been gotten to think that they also served as adornment. Probably from this they momen to his value was defined by greater or me nor beauty and wealth of the decoration. Currency-I fasten with rings couldto have form circulates closed or open, to be smooth or twisted, pre to seat the ends heavy, or carved Is difficult to evadefascination d this mode of payment, doubtlessly primiti goes, but very suggestive. Of simple curio sidades, as they were considered until beamlittle, they manillen ” arouse inte now increasing head of cattle.

Birth of the currency in Russia

In the inner plains of Europe it orients, the old nomadic towns (escitas and sárma anvil) dealt with the Greek colonies of 1coast of the Black Sea, interchanging its pro ductos: linen, wheat and skins. Indeed the squirrel foot them was first currencies used for the commercial transactions hast that began to circulate metal pieces, acu you swim by the most advanced countries: Bizanciand the Arab world. But it is precise to arrive me diados from century XIV so that, in I number sos principalities that occupied immense territhorium of present Russia, appeared currencies d forms oval, of copper or silver. One is denga (or, dengiu, ), name thatprobably it is the modification of a term rus (, tamga) or tartar (@) and that means, embiema “. This particularitity givestestimony of 1 custom of mongolas noble families d to record a shield in the circulating numerario. The iconography used to placebust of prince or the figure of sovereign to horse, armed with a lance. Indeed this weapon, symbol of being able and militant character, with time it determined a change in the name of the currency, doing it much more familiar for us: from mid century XVI, pieces were called @ of kopeika, this is, that today designates the monetary unit. In effect, rublit means, corte and it remembers the use, that extended during centuries, of silver and gold rods that, cortaban to carry out payments. It is known of the existence, around year thousands, of monetiformes gold pieces, emitted under great Duke of Kiev Vladimir Sviatoslavich, butit is thought that one was rather ostentation medals, destined to compensate to the faithful vasallos. Only with goes the Terrible one canto be spoken surely of gold currencies themselves (aims of century XVI), but during many years still circulated currentin the Russian State currencies of other countries, like the ducados Germans, Hungarian and Polish, legitimized by the password of the Russian authority. The great political, social and numismatic reform was not carried out until the times of czar Pedro 1, the Great one (1 682-1725), under whose guideRussia took the first steps to become one of the great powers, protagonists of the modern time.