The currencies of the Hebrew town


The Hebrews are an ethnically compatible ancestry to the Phoenicians and the asiriobabilónicos, and his origins, according to the Bible, it is necessary to look for them in the territory of Ur, in Chaldea, region located in the coasts of the gulf Persian and crossed by the Euphrates. This town (whose name it means indeed, people comings across of the river, ), after a pilgrimage that lasted several centuries, reached the southern zone of Syria well-known commonly by Palestine, and called by the Jews land of Canaán or that means hard in God. The Hebrew currencies constitute the faithful expression of the town that coined them, because closely they are bound to his religious sensitivity and a its historical vicissitudes. They present/display, in effect, a mediocre, artistic reflected limited iconography and of the typical aversion of Semites towards the elaborated images and, specially, in relation to the human image.

Against the anthropomorphous figures

On the contrary that the neighboring civilizations (like Egyptian, the devotee one of great number of animals in whose honor images to which were worked one surrendered cultured), the Hebrews they see to his God only with the thought, and consider a profanación to represent a divinity in figure human and in a material I saw and perecedero. The divinity is inmortal, eternal and irrepresentable. With regard to the anthropomorphous plasmación of the divinities, in the Bible are reflexed : “such ídolos are crude espantajos, private of the word. They even need to be transported, because they do not walk. Therefore, it is not necessary to fear them, since they cannot cause damage. And also, from them it cannot come nothing good”. And also: The Gentleman said: “I am Mr., your God You will not have foreign Gods. You will not make sculpture nor image some of what is at the top of sky nor of which it is down, in the Earth You will not adore such images nor you will render cultured some to them In the currencies of Hebrew town, in effect, does not appear human figures, and all the iconography reserve to objects of cult (5 of Yhwh (tetragrama impronunciable, as impronunciable is the name of God), this is, of Eternal, the Creator. From an historical point of view, in the course of the time the symbols of the foreign powers that governed the promised Earth, without never reaching a are observed to put under town chosen: among them they appeared the kings of Syria, Egyptian and the Romans”.

First testimonies

The Bible talks about to payments from the time of the patriarchs: Jose (towards year 1800 BC) was sold by his envious brothers to Egyptian merchants by five sicios. This Biblical passage certain historical foundation is recognized to him, since he is proven that towards century XIX BC one burdens shortage pushed the Hebrews to Egypt. But it is not possible to attribute to the word seated bankers ” in his banco. A noticeable society existencialmente by the small real estate property had avoided the concentration of great patrimonies into the hands of few, and favored, mainly at helenisticorromana time, the possibility that many Jews acquired great experience in commercial activities and accumulated enormous wealth (piénsese in the companies that rented boats and the birth of first banks, managed indeed by the Jews). The first Hebrew currencies had a strictly local circulation, and their types were a crown, a palm, the horn of abundance and a lily, represented in a very coarse style. Under Alexander Janeo (Jonatán), the legend in Hebrew language went accompanied by others in Greek. The Romans, after to have put under Syria and to the Seiéucidas, that dominated Palestine, did not take in to take part in this last region, being taken advantage of the civil wars that were debilitating the Jews.

Rome enters scene

In year 63 BC, Pompeyo took to the Jerusalem assault, ally to one of the factions in fight. It followed one long series of Hebrew sovereigns who demonstrated to be docile vasallos of to be able Roman. Among them, we remember Heródes Great (years 40-4 BC), who did not take care of much of ortodoxia religious, and it trusted the support of the Romans rather, so hated by his town. The types of the currencies send in general the previous ones, and present/display in addition the tripod and acrostolio (the prominent part to the prow of a boat), following frequently the tradition hellenistic. In addition to the intermittent presence of the date or the indication of value, is, in Greek, the legend new king of the Jews, ordered @Still more scandalous he had to seem to him to the Hebrew society the picture of emperor who, sometimes, appeared in those currencies, just like the one of own Agripa with its son, that one imagines in the currencies coined in Cesarean. (In the mintings of Judea, nevertheless, the types were included only of parasol ritual and of the ear.)

Testimonies of the authority

During the Roman domination, the diverse governments were authorized to emit bronze currencies, of strictly local circulation, They present/display the types characteristic of Palestine, as the ear, the palm, vasija of two handles and the crown. Under Poncio Pilatos, in individual, was adopted Roman symbols typically, as the crown of laurel and lituus@ the cane curved of you augur them, priests of the Latin religion. It appeared in addition the name to Tiberio, signal, for some specialists, of which a policy was effective openly antiJewish, that was to lead to a fight more and more radical and decided between both components and effect, in 66 year AD breos, exasperated by lz fiscal of civil employees r and by the obligation of acep imperial authority that 1 doxos could not admit, they showed rebellion buds. This one caused two types of emissions. First, of the cash settlements, com caught silver currencies (sicios sicios means) that took to the types the glass and of the lily, with one legend that it specifically named to Israeil and Yerushalaim hacdoshá “Jerusalén santa”. They were also coined sicios of bronze with inscription, Herut Zion that is, freedom of Sión almost a shout, the proclamation of the will to resist, the absolute affirmation of religious and political independence of Hebrew town.

the squashed revolt

The second series of currencies, emitted in name of Roman emperors Vespasiano, Tito and Nerva, constitutes a species of answer to currencies coined during the revolt: the legend Iudaea deducta, (this is, domeñada Judea, snatched to the control of the rebels) they emphasize not without arrogance the destruction of Jerusalem (year 70 AD.). Very significant and expressive it is the representation selected for these currencies: in some of Vespasiano and Tito it appears a palm under which a woman is seated crying, that is the personification of Judea. In sestercio of It rib, is reflexed mng: Fisci iudaici subbroad calumny, legend that does explicit reference to the tax paid by the Jews to the imperial state treasury. According to the propagandistic phrase of the emperor, it would have been barrida the false accusation of an exaggerated fiscal exacción to the Hebrew town. But the difficult relations between Judea and the Romans did not finish: when the emperor Adriano, in year 132 AD., wanted to rebuild Jerusalem and to raise on the ruins of the Temple a new sanctuary dedicated to Jupiter, the Hebrews rebelled themselves. He gave beginning thus to rise of Bar Kokebas, hijo of the star, whose name appears in diverse mintings of silver and bronze. This rebellion, also drowned in blood, it was the last manifestation of a town that, from year 135 AD. (year of the diáspora), one dispersed by world. The currencies of this period are very interesting and rich in chronological, iconográficas and historical references. The head of the rebels he appears with the name of Simón, detail that during some years has confused the specialists, who thought that these pieces had to attribute itself to another historical period. The currencies of silver, more of the times coined on Roman denarios, like demonstration of state of extreme isolation and precariedad whereupon the rebellion was carried out, often take the facade of Temple, that as much importance historical and symbolic it always had for the Hebrew town. On the Temple we found the star that alludes to the name of head of the cash settlements. In reverso of these currencies we found the chalice and Iulav ritual. This last one included/understood a palm (lulav) together with mirto (fairies), willow (aravá) and cedar (etrog). Also bronze currencies exist, of great module, more likely destined to pay to the troops. legend alludes to all to the freedom of Jerusalem and the . redemption of Israel. In order to date these pieces, it is taken like datum point beginning of the revolt. Often, in them they also appear clusters of grape, wrath of three cords, the chalice for the wine and the palm, expensive symbols to the hebraica ritual tradition. !>

The temple of Jerusalem

Concrete symbol of the Hebrew religiosidad, the Temple of Jerusalem was elevated in a hill that commanded to make level king Salomón specially (961933 BC) as it leaves from a work of extension and embellecimiento of the city, that had to also include/understand huge constructions, like the walls and the real palace. The Temple built, in seven years, workers and craftsmen coordinated and directed by teachers of Phoenician works, and presented/displayed remarkable dimensions: by the present rest of the walls of perimeter, we know that it had a length of perhaps 450 ms and one width of 300 M. s were a modest building in comparison with the Egyptian temples of Luxor and Karnak, but very considerable been account that constituted the expression of a town, the Hebrew, that until that moment been it had integrated by shepherds and agriculturists. The Temple was not an oration place, but the dwelling of God, where the priests guarded the Coffer of the Alliance, that it contained the Tables of the Law. The religious value is included/understood well that got to have the Temple of Jerusalem, scene of numerous rites, as the annual visit and presentation of offerings. The places where the Temple of Jerusalem was raised are not only expensive to the Jews; for the Christians, in effect, they are equally sacred, since they are tie to the youth and the preaching of Jesus. Also it stops to Islamic religion the Temple has the greater importance symbolic, since, according to the tradition, Mahoma prophet prayed there shortly before dying.