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Reference to the great attention has already been made that the sovereigns of old Rome gave, from the first years of the Empire, to a vast one propagandistic aim closely related to its own people. In an accustomed society not to tie the power to a single man (we remember the great fragmentation of the positions at republican time and the absolute temporalidad that caracterizagoes), to make respect to one only person constituted an element of great importance, and of which that respect was obtained great part depended on the consensus.

Currencies to celebrate the power

The currencies were also used with the aforesaid purpose, although they were objects of dimensions very reduced and done of materials that hardly they allowed to shades and details. But in any case it was managed to create a gallery of pictures of exceptional physical fidelity and psychological penetration. In these years the necessity felt to identify with a concrete individual, and physical characteristics very customized, the memory of whichever he did by Rome: back it was left the time of Cincinato, in which the Roman citizen had like only annular objective for government property and to dedicate its life to the head of cattle publishes (public thing), to already return to the anonymity once the community it did not need to him. The emperor carries out a position life, and during his government he wants to be celebrated, wishes that its image can represent, in a dimension amplest possible, the constituted power. The reference to a person with somatic characteristics enough the precise thing, also has function to contribute security to the citizen, to give certain concretion to the power and, therefore, to induce to a greater obedience and certain degree of devotion. The mechanism is quite simple: if it is not known that that is disobeyed, one does not see braking by excessive scruples, whereas if it is possible to be conferred a face and an identity to that one governs, if conscience is had of which that person exists, it feels ideally exhorted to collaborate with him for the communal property. Indeed on this paternalista function the propaganda was based imperial in the first times.

the cult of the personality: a surpassed taboo

The first immortalized alive personage in the currencies was Julio Caesar: in effect, previously he was prohibited to reproduce the factions of a contemporary, in order to avoid that that cult of the personality so detested by the Romans was created since they expelled to his kings (year 509 BC). The pictures of the first emperors are still enough stereotyped in the currencies, although they are made with well-taken care of and attention, privileging the message of authority, security and decision that had to accompany the new political trajectory. With Calígula (years 37-41 AD.), the recorders truely implant the art of the picture. It for the first time appears in Rome the figure of the emperor in the sestercios. The picture of Claudius is very beautiful (years 41-54 AD.): the artists they transmit the profile to us of a viril man, of willful chin; an image whose nobility heightens a long and elegant neck. Of Nerán we have two groups, both interesting ones and characterized well: first it represents the very young emperor (reached the dignity imperial being still adolescent, 17 years, of years 54-68 AD.), of gentile and delicate characteristics, whereas in the second part of his life, caractedzada in policy by serious crimes and very rigorous absolutism, appears pictures that present/display it heavy, with the glance fierce and obstinate. In time of Nerón, and doing without which it was expressed in the currencies, the art of the engraving crossed a little while of great splendor, that extended in the following years: let us remember the most beautiful profile of Galba (year 69 AD.), that imagines without complacencia some in age outpost, and emphasizes sotabarba, the ojeras and the thin hair in sienes. We are very far, certainly, in temporary terms and of mentality, of those masculine figures of unreal beauty that appeared in the Greek currencies. Very expressive and of remarkable realism it is the picture that to us some currencies of Vitelio (69 year AD.) and Vespasiano present/display (years 69-79 AD.), founder of Flavia dynasty. Of this last emperor we have a picture of an almost violent expresionismo, to such an extent he is realistic and ruthless profile of a lacking man of all grace, with ganchuda nose, prominent chin and watched small eye although of extremely acute. Low Adriano (years 117-138 AD.) emperor born in Spain, the art of the monetal picture experiences a renewed impulse: for the first time emperor is made portray with beard in the currencies, characteristic that will adopt many of their successors. Its artistic taste note also in the villa of Tívoli and its mausoleo, today Castle of Sant’Angelo.

the woman protagonist of the social life

Probably, the characteristic of the beard registers a change in the fashion, and the same it happens to the einado one of muieres (generally spouses, daughters and next relatives of the emperor), who also exhibit elaborated and gorgeous sometimes usable hairdos like decorative element: they emphasize, between all, those of Plotina and Matidia, respectively wife and niece of Trajano, images so taken care of in reproduction of peinado like turning this one a ornamental element. The pictures of these are not infrequent in the currencies , augustas: let us remember the most beautiful profile of the wife of Adriano, Sabina, and the one of matrona Faustina, married with Antonino Pío. We could remember other many, to often attest the great consideration in which one had by those years the women, even like contributor direct of the political power. During the reign of the Antoninos (of years 96-192 AD.), it is attended a slow one to decline of the realistic spirit who characterizes pictures in the previous decades: the faces are less well-taken care of and are rather rigid, lacking of life and character. civil wars that follow one another as of year 192, fragment the imperial power and multiply the mints, with the consequent lack of unit stylistic and the introduction of many typical elements of the provincial, sometimes tending mints to cartoon and not very kind a to reflect the details. The period that mediates between years 238 and 244, defined like the years of the military anarchy, indicates a little while of great political and military crisis of the Roman Empire, that is also reflected in (you pictures, of which few are not executed with minucia and application. Another fundamental factor in the change of style is in which it is taking root in Rome the figure of the divinizado emperor, this is, that no longer it considers a man, but a demigod him, according to a concept of Eastern tradition. In the scope of this new vision it makes no sense to speak of realistic picture, since the imperial figure no longer presents/displays human characteristics and, therefore, no longer he is allowed nor worthy to reproduce some of its physical defects. The picture becomes a stereotype more and more, as we can appreciate in the faces of Diocieciano (305 years 284 to AD.), Maximiano (years 286-305 AD.), Majencio (years 306-312 AD.) or Licinio (years 308-324 AD.). Under Constantino the Great one (years 306-337 AD.) is a new message that to communicate: Constantino has become paladín of the Christianity, and indeed in the symbols of this last one are centered the new features in the matter of currencies, whereas the face remains standardized and lacking of a specific characterization. !>

The picture in Rome

The Greek art always exerted one grandísima fascination on the Romans, and it even caused certain complex of infehoñdad in front a some concrete sectors like the estatuaria, until the point of which during centuries the Roman artists limited themselves to make retorts and a to copy great Greek works. Retrat6, however, was a chapter of genuine itálica tradition, and in him the Romans felt dewnculados of any example, Born of the practice of the funeral sculpture in century I BC, the picture, without references to any canon and without resource some to philosophical theories, had to reproduce the factions of the deceased, whose corporal characteristics, wanted for his relatives, had to be fdmente reflected. Ffthe Undertaker does not have in himself anything of artistic, because it is constructed by draining of face of the deceased. Su particulafidad it is in the disposition to aoeptar especfflw of indmduo, even in his less pleasing aspects. This picture veñsta was acquired induso by the classes b4as. Next to the efigies of illustrious personages like Pompeyo and Cicerón, both of century I BC, we have the familiar group of Lucio Vibio and Ve ilia Hilara with its son (century I BC), figures that express c you their origin popular. Lower the pain to remember, for compared with some beautiful fenieninos pictures that appear in the currencies, the busts of Octavia and of the Roman Lady, from whom it is eviidente a great expressive vivacity and a search of characterization of the personage with characteristics shrewdly realistic.

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