The development of the financial world at the modern time, that turned around Fiandes, Florence, Toledo and Venice, gave origin to the birth in Italy, in the middle of century Xiii, of the deprived commercial bank. Their functions were to facilitate the currency exchanges, to provide means economic for the expeditions to East and Africa of Portuguese, Castilian, Aragonese and venecianos, and to take care of the expensive financing of warlike campaigns or to the transport of money within dangerous and anxious Europe. It became necessary, then, a financial organization a similarity of the used one by the order of Temple, that already from the previous century maintained united commercial and economically, from Earth Santa, all the cristiandad.

the first bankers

To the templarios one attributes the first organized modern bank to international level, and the creation to them of the change letter. His deposits were so numerous and their so important loans to sovereigns and Pontiffs, who caused their own disappearance. pressures that by his economic situation Felipe the Beautiful one of France exerted on Merciful Pontiff V, caused that this one harassed to order until abolishing it in 1312. Executed the great master in 1314, the goods that had the templarios reverted to the States or were transferred to other orders, being in the forgetfulness the one that was the best commercial and economic organization during almost two centuries. The creation in Italy of the commercial bank facilitated the accomplishment of remote payments, the obtaining of benefits with the deposits, and possibility of acceding on credits and loans. They honored bankers like the Bardi, who in 1336 got to have not less than sixteen branchs. They had initiated its activities in Florence in the middle of the Xil century. The maximum development was reached at the beginning of century XIV, when in that city operated eighty competitors, among them the Peruzzi, Acciaiuoii, Aibizzi, Buondelmonti, Cerchi, Capponi and Frescobaldi. Italy, pioneer of the deprived bank, it put into the hands of this one the collection of tithes and tributes. Also the bankers took care of the financing of Pontiffs and sovereigns during two centuries, becoming rich and breaking according to the vicissitudes of history. The great fortunes kneaded in this period, majority unstable and fragile, influenced in all the fields of the power, the arts and sciences. The Medici, that founded their bank together with some members of the Bardi family in 1397, they changed the structures and they modified the traditional system more resembling it the bank present. Its power and wealth caused that they took part in the political decisions for more than a century in t oda Italy. They finished in bankruptcy and returned to Florence in century XVI like governors of a State, the great one ducado of Toscana, who conserved until 1737, when Duke Gian Gastone died, last piston rod of the ancestry.

the bank deprived in Europe

At the beginning of century XVI, the financial center of Europe moved slowly towards Augsburgo, a small city of Baviera, thanks to one family, the Fugger (Fúcar), who had to print a deep track in the economic history of the continent. Textile manufacturers and retailers, in 1459 created a series of banks and formed a financial organization of dimensions and extraordinary importance. Su management in the businesses and companies adjusted to very modern criteria: their fundamental principles were the indivisibilidad of the patrimony and the ordered accounting. Her organization, in the matter of communications and of social benefits to her collaborators, would be worthy of our time. The decay of the Medici increased its protagonism, and they became the pontifical financial agents and support economic of the sovereigns of the time: they financed to Carlos I of Spain and Francisco I of France, and took part directly in policy of its time. But also the Fugger ended up declining, as a result of their entailment to the ruling house in Spain. In effect, the financial crises of Spanish Corona, first in 1557-1559 and second in 1607, precipitated their fall. Other bankers Germans, like the Welser, financed the European monarchs, as the Italian bankers lost their protagonism and the center international financier moved to Amsterdam, that maintained the predominance during two centuries. They were seats with great financial movement Paris, London and Towns, without scorning to Aviñón, residential city of the Popes from 1309 to 1376 and that, since was sold to Merciful I saw in 1348 by Juan I of Naples, became a great, host commercial and financial center of numerous bankers.

the bank deprived in Spain

The appearance of a new type of activities as a result of the commercial revolution of the XI-Xiii centuries, gave origin to the bank modern, cradle in the medieval bank. It was into the hands of aurífices, moneychangers or merchants, whose mission did not happen to guard, to certify law of the metal and its value, and to carry out payments at a distance. The variety of currencies, the knowledge of its parity and the manipulation of same, they caused that the retailers trusted their operations through the banks in exchange for certificates of deposit. The evolution of monetary bank towards a bank of the credit was not made hope. Italy first and Corona de Aragón later, set the standard of which we know like modern bank. The changers that evolved to bankers could be private public or. These last ones were called changers of slight and lacked license. Not therefore the public, to whom already Sancho Ramirez (1063-1094) granted it. The changer deprived public and extended by Corona de Castilla throughout the Way of Santiago, and in Corona de Aragón they located in Zaragoza and Jaca in the interior, and Barcelona, Valencia and Palma de Mallorca in the coast, and in both kingdoms they proliferated in urban sprawls, strengths and temples. Between 1340 and 1350, the private changes disappeared in Castile. Before the shortage that Alfonso Xi experimented to confront his warlike campaigns, seized the changes public, which created distrust in the deposit takers, that they kept its volumes in house or they deposited them in the monasteries. In 1351, Pedro I tried to recover the confidence of the changes without to obtain it. Before the lack of numerario (deposits) the changes were limited public, and administration and responsibility put themselves under communal. This phenomenon occurred in all the kingdoms of Spain. The black plague (1348) sank the peninsular kingdoms, causing an economic chaos that only was able to surpass Castile, that it based his economy in the cattle, the wool and the gold that it obtained in Granada. This situation extended until half-full of century XV. Aragón continued his commercial and financial decay, and disappeared most of the deprived moneychangers, some of which it was declared insolvent, with important liabilities. The Catalan bankers, more advanced in the intermediation by the Italian influences, were themselves affected by the shortages that were undergoing the kingdoms of Spain; thus, between 1381 and 1383 the most well-known bankers of the time went to ruin: Dolivella, Paschal and Esquerit, and Pere Dez Cases in Barcelona, and To measure in Gerona. Only Gualbes, of Barcelona, was able to confront the crisis.

Taules of Canvi

All this conjuncture induced the Council of One hundred to restore the 25 of January of 1401 the Taula de Canvi. Successively this was implanted institution in Valencia (1407), Zaragoza (Table of the Common Deposits), Palma de Mallorca and Gerona. This last city obtained privilege in 1443 but does not consist that it worked until 1568. They followed Vic and Perpiñán to him. Stabilized the economic situation, she appeared in scene the Italian Francesco I gave Marco Datini, a merchant of Prato that created its own bank in order to finance its numerous businesses. Its original store of Aviñán happened to become a multinational of the time, with establishments in Fiandes, France, Italy and Spain. In this last one it opened branches in Barcelona, Valencia and Majorca, and obtained pingües benefits in its management between 1396 and 1399. Its scrupulous countable system and its great file, conserved in the Palace Datini de Prato, that it contains more than 125, 000 received letters of 257 localities, of which 22, 451 are Spanish, they allow, being based on his detailed notes accountants, to establish the economic state of the three Spanish cities and its evolution during this time. If the results were good in the first period, between 1399 and 1403, the benefits diminished of different form in each one from the cities, but that did not diminish patrimony of Datini, that when dying ascended to 72, 000 florins and that it bequeathed to the city of Prato in 1401. The economic conjuncture of Catalonia did that the Generalitat was restricting the number of private changers and its activities, supeditando them to the Taula de Canvi that depended on the municipality. It annulled the activities of those in 1446 to restore them in 1452 and to annul them definitively in 1455, which caused the ruin of bankers like Jaume de Cassagia in 1446, and invited to the embezzlement in 1446 a Berenguer Vendrell. Similar conjunctures occurred in the Taules of Valencia and Majorca. While, in Castile, Juan II promulgated one pragmatic that revalidó Enrique IV, and that he authorized to constitute whichever changes asked for themselves, private or public, these last ones put under to the proceedings of guarantees that demanded the city councils. In this atmosphere, between 1450 to 1550 banks like those of Castile proliferated and Andalusia, Towns, Aranda de Duero, Valladolid, Madrid, Toledo, Seville, Cordova and Baeza, to mention just a few.

Influencia of the foreign bank

The Castilian bank received a new impulse with the arrival of precious metals of the Indians. International Capitalism was seen attracted by the wealth that transported the fleets to Seville, and they appeared the cosmopolitan bankers: flamenco genoveses, Germans and, that they diminished the effectiveness of our moneychangers, dominating the economic situation during the reigns of Kings Católicos (1474-1517), Carlos V (1517-1556) and Felipe II (1556-1598). This privileged class of bankers, between whom as soon as there was some Spanish, it dominated situation, controlling the payments to the countries with which the debt was greater, and dominating almost all the financial operations. Finally, corona had to prohibit the payments to the precious metal outside without its consent. Before this disagreement, a project was born in times of Carlos V, who, elaborated by experts in the reign of Felipe li, tried to turn the House of Hiring of Seville bank commercial and box of national debt. The attempt failed, and the supremacy of the cosmopolitan bankers stayed, whom they relegated to a second plane to our bankers deprived public and. If these last ones emphasized, they were promoted to public by the municipality, but it finished there its function. The shipments of silver and gold, that had been restricted, were started again as a result of the rebellion of the flamenco ones. This new situation increased commerce and caused a scaling of prices of exportable products. The bankers no longer operated only with numerarios besides borders, but that dealt yet type of goods, mainly the genoveses, but brakings in their dominating attempt by one were seen disposition dated in Zamora the 6 of June of 1554 in that it was prohibited them to conduct operations of transaction. They had, then, that to limit its activity to move numerario. The dominion of the genoveses was increased of such form, that Felipe 11, by the decree of 1, 0 of November of 1575, tried to eliminate them, giving primacía to the bankers Castilian suppliers, which was not obtained by this means, but marginalizing his performance. The bumps of the private and public bank until the creation of the National Bank of San Carlos in 1782, were subject to the influences foreigners, and although the private bank always was represented in the main cities of Spain, never acquired character counted expansionist except for exceptions. In effect, he limited his performance his city of origin and lacked being able economic sufficient stops to compete with the great foreign bank, which caused numerous insolvent in all the national territory. Towns, Seville and the Toledos had moments of splendor during century xvi, by the amount of banks and the movement that generated, consequence of the fairs, of gold of the colonies or the cut, respectively, but everything was fleeting and fleeting as a result of depression that underwent the country. Catalonia, that registered a relative animation in he himself period, to support the operativity of the Taules of Canvi it created like branch of the institution the Bank of the City of Barcelona (1606), that served good until the depression of 1635, that forced to close the private banks again. The 1640 consequent war and revolt did that Taula de Canvi and Bank of the City of Barcelona they leant mutually, until the end to have to combine in 1655 the accounting of both to subsist. Parallelly, the Taula de Canvi of Valencia that had been reinforced in 1649, was able to stay until 1719. The Table of the Common ones Deposits of Zaragoza, settled down in the market, built between 1541 and 1551, were not incompatible with the private banks, but the situation of one and others was so precarious, that the needed ones loans had to go to the userers. For that reason, in Cortes de Barbastro of 1626 the collection of interests outside the banks was prohibited authorized. During the Xvil century, they honored organizations like the five Greater Unions of Madrid, than they exerted of bankers and retailers endorsed by its own ones formed into a guild. Its power was great and operated in the peninsula and the colonies, destabilizing the projects economic of the State. The situation moved to the Marquess of the Cove to order to the Marquess of the Port a study for the creation of a bank state. The chosen model was the Bank of England, and in this way the Real Turn was born, with power station in Madrid and branches in Barcelona, Bilbao, Cadiz and Malaga, and with connections in Amsterdam, Lisbon, Naples, Paris and Rome. It worked well until the death of the Marquess of the Cove (1754), but it did not stop being a project of state bank.


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