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We have remembered in several occasions that the first currency had its origin in the zone of Smaller Asia towards century VII BC, and that soon founda scope of ideal diffusion in póleis Greek between the centuries I and V AD. The Roman, rather delayed currency with respect tothose of other Mediterranean civilizations, it must much to the Greek experience, as much for the minting in silver like for the production inbronze, typical metal of the first itálicos monetales exponents. In order to reconstruct the adoption and diffusion of the itálico ground currency, an one step back prevails, until century X BC, period to which they becometo overcome bronze or copper breads, of form predominantly to circulate, divided, documented whole numbers or in the zone of Italycentroseptentrional, in Sicily and Sardinia. The fact that often these breads chip axes would be tesaurizaran along with, does uncertain hisinterpretation: the hypotheses send to votivas offerings or material contributed by retailers and craftsmen and destined to the interchange or tosmelting. Also Rome, like all the itálicos towns, used as the bronze like metal for their archaic currency. After to have knownthe phases of the exchange and the cattle like currency, were used for the interchanges breads copper information in gross. These metal pieces ingross and fused, rude forms the call aes (or aes infectum, that is copper pieces or bronze nonelaborated). The breads had a weight thatit varied of few grams to 4 kilos, and its value consisted solely of its weight: a form or a reconocible symbol did not exist thatit guaranteed the weight of the metal on the part of the authority.

Aparece a signal

These so inadequate forms of interchange, in use until century VIII BC, were replaced in the middle of Vi, C., that is towards the endof the monarchic period in Rome, by the call aes signature: more regular in their form with respect to aes rude (was square blocks umade oval), they presented/displayed in the one or both faces great innovation of a signal that characterized them. These breads constitute a datum point of enormous importance for the understanding of the phases previous to the introduction ofcurrency in the itálico world. Pliny, the author of century I AD. (24-79), in his Naturalis work history, he makes overcome to king Servio Tuliointroduction of aes with a password. This source would confirm that advanced the century I operated sufficient transformations like stopsto demand the introduction of new means of validation of the interchanges. What first one was moderate with oxen, ewes and bronze, insuccessive it was valued with pieces of metal to the weight, of certainly more comfortable way. Another accepted test that this new system of interchange widely was spread and therefore: in 454 and 452 BC was promulgatedindividual laws, the Aternia-Tarpeia and the Menenia-Sextia, that they established that the pains could be compensated with copper. Very interesting it is to observethe fixed type of parity: 100 aces were equivalent to an ox; 1 0, to a ewe. The use of the archaic measured cattle as of value follows ittestifying some terms derived from the word pecus, that means cattle indeed: , pecunia “, understood like money; and, peculado “and peculio is continued using in Spanish. In this phase, the use of the word, ace, had the pound meaning, as a reference of the weight, and not like name of the unitmonetary of bronze, that would receive later, with the first official minting conducted by Rome. The used technique was the fusion: the hot metal was spilled between two valvas that was also the matrices of the marks printed inbronze. This system produced rectangular sections in wedge formation or, and also caused many flashes. The figurations in these ingotsthey classify like of dry branch (chronological perhaps first), of thorn of fish, spear and spear and dolphin. Also they were used likeweight, and varied of few grams to a kilo. Copper breads of this class have been, generally fragmented, in the Straight one, Etruria and Emilia. Deposits found in the zone between Reggio Emilia and Casteifranco Emilia have put in clear that these were places ofproduction. In Casteifranco, in individual, they have appeared breads with the password of the dry branch, in which one first form is recognizedof metal of intercambi Probably the first passwords had deprived character, and performed the function to indicate the factory, and not ofto represent a governmental seal. Even after the introduction of the official currency, aes rude and aes signature continuedcirculating, as they demonstrate several deposits of currencies where have been mixed bronze breads with currencies themselves. definitive step of the phase of the gain-currency to the one of the metal of weight is probable that BC took place during century V., but isevident that during certain period both systems coexisted. With a chronology that not yet is absolutely clear, throughout century IV BC, is adopted in central Italy a new system, characterizedby the call aes burdens (literally, heavy bronze).

Itálicas or already Roman Currencies?

Also with the technique of the fusion ingots with authentic monetales characteristics were ujeron: they have a ponderal definition, aredivided in manifold and submultiples and they present/display types in both sides. Sometimes the presence of a same type characterizes all oneproduction, as in the case of the prow of ship of the Roman series. In addition to the Roman production, we know other many series in the scope of central Italy, contemporary of the Romans if noprevious to them. Even being used still like reserve of value and for payments of high quantity, currencies are considered properly thissince they are organized in a system in which each piece belongs to a noun equivalent to all the others. The date of this firstofficial emission is made overcome to 335 BC, when Rome in the heat of is expansion territorial and pawned on consolidating its image. first victory on samnita Liga (343-341 BC), the greater State of the itálica Peninsula, and the reaffirmation of the Roman dominion onLatin Liga, dissolved in 338, makes of Rome a city of confirmed and recognized authority. The first currency has like unit ofreference the ace, that as for the weight corresponds to the Latin pound (272. 87 g): of here the name of libral currency. The first oneiconográfico type represents in the obverse the head of Jano, and in reverso, the prow of a ship. Perhaps this last image talks about totaking of Anzio, city of the volseos, and to the capture of its ships (338 BC): rostra of the boats, soon reproduced incurrencies, exposed in the Forum like celebration of the victory and symbol of the power of Rome. This tipología of reverso is repeated inRoman bronze currencies with great certainty, until the reform of Caesar. The ace divi (Jía, as before the pound, in 12 ounces, and each nounit took in the obverse the efigie of a divinity. The indication of the value came given by a special sign, without legend. Also in thiscase the manufacturing technique was the fusion, that simultaneously allowed to create redondel and his impronta. Often these currencies present/displayteethed in the edge: he is whatever is of the fine metallic cord that took place during the fusion done in serie. The metal in fusionit strained in molds that allowed to make many pieces simultaneously, thanks to a narrow channel that communicated the diverse forms to each other. The weight of the ace and its submultiples was not constant in the time: towards 286 BC was reduced to half, giving origin to the semilibral series. During these reforms two new nouns were included: the semiuncia (average ounce) and the quartuncia (quarter of ounce), and were introducedtechnique of the minting. The reforms of the ace lead to the three appearance of manifold: the decussis (10 I roast), the tressis or tripondius (3I roast) and dupondíus (2 I roast). These types take in the Rome obverse (decussis and tripondius) and Minerva (dupondius), whereas inreverso stays the ship prow.

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